1.1.1 'the men of whom the nation is
proud ... the knights-errant of the
1.1.2 'the Golden Hind returning
with her round flanks full of
treasure' (material benefits
1.2 Suggestions of the decline
1.2.1 Reflected in description of
126.96.36.199 'imperceptible fall'/'the decline of
day'/'stricken to death by the
touch of that gloom brooding over
a crowd of men' (as if the moral
problems of empire should haunt
1.2.2 Pathetic fallacy - darkness
indicating the approaching
end of empire OR suggesting
how much suffering it had
188.8.131.52 'The air was dark above
Gravesend ... condensed to a
mournful gloom' vs 'the biggest
and the greatest town on earth'
(based on wealth of empire)
184.108.40.206 'the gloom to the west ... became more
sombre every minute, as if angered by the
approach of the sun' (sun illustrating
positivity and enlightenment coming with
the end of empire).
1.3 Reference to the negative impact
1.3.1 Empire just used by people for
their own gains
220.127.116.11 'Hunters for gold or pursuers of fame ...
bearing the sword and often the torch ...
bearers of a spark from the sacred fire.'
(justification of 'civilising' the indigenous
1.3.2 Suggests that the conquer of
empire is dependent on the
manipulation of indigenous people -
nothing to be proud of
18.104.22.168 'They were conquerors and for
that you want only brute force -
nothing to boast of.'
22.214.171.124 '...your strength is just an
accident arising from the
weakness of others.'
1.3.3 Reference to the actions
of Caesar - tried to conquer
empire but returned to
chaos in Rome
126.96.36.199 'run overlands across
the Gauls in a hurry'
1.3.4 London presented as a place of
darkness - indicates that we were
'savages' to the Romans (also a sense of
MORAL darkness in the way we inflicted
our own culture on others
188.8.131.52 'precious little to eat fit for a 'civilised' man'
184.108.40.206 'death skulking in the air'
220.127.116.11 'the utter savegery
had closed around him'
18.104.22.168 'the water shone pacifically;
the sky...a benign immensity of
unstained light' (CONTRAST -
how things should be)
2 'Hard Times' - Dickens
2.1 A convenient way to
2.1.1 "You must be got to
Liverpool and sent
2.2 The playground of the rich and
abused by those with money for
personal gain - represented by
2.2.1 "Bored out of the place
and going in for camels"
2.2.2 "The Great Pyramid put it into his
head to go up the Nile."
2.2.3 '...strolled to Jerusalem and got
bored there; then gone yachting
about the world and got bored
3 'Shirley' - Charlotte Bronte
3.1 Feeling of superiority
towards natives of the
3.1.1 "The savage is
3.1.2 "The poverty which
reduces an Irish girl to rags
is impotent to rob the
English girl of the wardrobe
she knows is necessary to
3.2 '...covering white Western isles with the
poisoned exhalations of the East,
dimming the lattices of English homes
with the breath of Indian plague' - Purity
of England cantrasted to foreign disease
4 'The Man He Killed' - Thomas Hardy
4.1 Takes a working class
4.1.1 ‘out of work,’ ‘sold his traps’ (war is not
an honourable civilising mission as it is
made out to be but a last resort for those
out of work).
4.2 Anonymity sustained
throughout the poem
4.2.1 ‘he and I’ (equal status in the poem –
takes away the idea of ‘us and them,’
could be anybody in any army; no
matter how politicians try to justify it,
this remains constant).
4.2.2 ‘you shoot a fellow down’
(could just mean ‘a man’ or
could mean ‘someone like
4.3 Questions justification given
for war by suggesting the
persona feels uneasy in
justifying what he did
4.3.1 ‘I shot him dead because - /
because he was my foe’ (repetition
= trying to justify actions to himself,
shows a sense of disbelief,
suggests that he is simply repeating
what he has been taught and is
starting to question it) (ironic use of
‘foe’ – borrowing style of language
from ‘epic’ poetry which glorifies
4.3.2 Enjambment between 3rd and 4th
stanzas – ‘That’s clear enough:
although/He thought he’d ‘list,
perhaps’ (uneasy transition
between stanzas suggests he
doesn’t believe the justification he
4.4.1 Iambic trimetre/tetrametre – mimics
heartbeat, emphasising shared humanity
+ gives a slow, reflective pace which
makes us consider the subject matter.
4.4.2 Rhyme scheme broken in 3rd stanza? – ‘I shot
him dead because’ ‘My foe of cause he was’
(disruption to rhyme scheme acts as an
expression of emotion – showing regret for his