Behavioural Model of Abnormality

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Behavioural Model of Abnormality
1 Definition: Abnormality is a learn behaviour (We are all born as clean slates (Tabula Rasa)
1.1 Definition: Classical Conditioning, Social Learning and Operant Conditioning
1.1.1 Definition: If abnormal behaviour is REINFORCED, it will be repeated. If it is punished, it will stop. REINFORCED, REPEATED, REWARDED.
1.1.1.1 Evaluation
1.1.1.1.1 Strengths
1.1.1.1.1.1 Explains media Influence eg Anorexia and the "perfect model"
1.1.1.1.1.2 Convincing explanations to some disorders ie Phobia (use study to support)
1.1.1.1.1.3 Has led to successful behavioural therapies ie SD
1.1.1.1.2 Weaknesses
1.1.1.1.2.1 Reductionist and ignores other explanations ie schizophrenia which has biological explanations
1.1.1.1.2.2 Findings on animals cannot be generalised
2 Classical Conditioning
2.1 Learning occurs through associations
2.1.1 Unconditional (Natural) Stimuli are ASSOCIATED with behaviours which were PREVIOUSLY NEUTRAL (NS), so when the novel situation is encountered, the same response (CS) is portrayed
2.1.1.1 PAVLOV'S DOG (1927)
2.1.1.1.1 WATSON AND REYNER (1920)
2.1.1.1.1.1 LITTLE ALBERT
2.2 Learn to have abnormal responces to previous stimuli
3 Operant Conditioning
3.1 Learning occurs through reinforcemrnt
3.1.1 Responses which are rewarded (reinforced) will therefore be repeated due to gaining pleasure from them. If punished behaviours will be avoided.
3.1.1.1 RAT IN SKINNER'S BOX
3.2 If maladaptive behaviours are rewarded, psychological disorders emerge.
4 Social Learning
4.1 Learning occurs through observations
4.1.1 Bandura's Bobo Doll (1961)
4.1.1.1 Found that children imitated aggressive behaviours that they observed.
4.1.1.1.1 Especially if behaviours go without punisment
5 Behavioural Treaments
5.1 SYSTEMATIC DESENSITISATION
5.1.1 1. Relaxation Training
5.1.2 2. Anxiety Hierachy
5.1.3 3. Reciprocal Inhibition
5.1.4 4. Progression
5.1.5 5. Complete Treatment
5.1.6 Evaluation
5.1.6.1 Weaknesses
5.1.6.1.1 Flooding/ Immersion therapy is cheaper, quicker and just as successful as SD
5.1.6.1.2 Only cures symptoms, not underlying problem, so it's possible another abnormal behaviour will take it's place = Symptom substitution
5.1.6.2 Strengths
5.1.6.2.1 Less Effort than some therapies. McGrath et al (1990) said that 75% of patients with phobias responded well to SD.
5.1.6.2.2 Emmelkamp (1994) found that imagined stressful situations can reduce anxiety in real life situations
5.2 Helps individual face phobia without letting fear take over (Based on Classical Conditioning)