Teaching, Learning, and Development

Deanna Matthews
Mind Map by Deanna Matthews, updated more than 1 year ago
Deanna Matthews
Created by Deanna Matthews almost 5 years ago
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Mind Map on Teaching, Learning, and Development, created by Deanna Matthews on 09/11/2016.

Resource summary

Teaching, Learning, and Development
  1. Chapter 1: Planning for the Upcoming School Year
    1. Reflective Practice
      1. Construct short & targeted pre-instructional assessments to determine curricular starting points
        1. Use curricular commonalities to prepare lesson sets and units
          1. Schwab's (1973) Commonplaces of Education
            1. Someone (the teacher)
              1. Teaches something (the curriculum)
                1. To someone else (the student)
                  1. In some setting (the classroom)
                  2. (Diagnostic Assessment) Math & LA Skills can give global overview of student abilities, & can indicate relative strengths & needs
                    1. Provide opportunities for students to make conwctions
                      1. Competence Beliefs: students' evaluative perceptions about their means, processes, and capabilities to accomplish certain tasks
                        1. Control Beliefs: students' perceptions about the likelihood of accomplishing tasks under certain conditions
                        2. Chapter Two: Considering Developmental Differences
                          1. Attention is paid to: -skills children have mastered -skills they are in the process of acquiring -skills they need to acquire to maximize their dev. potential
                            1. Dev. is a series of physical, cognitive, & social changes
                              1. Grade 1-3: Best time for most students to learn to read efficiently
                                1. Best predictor of continued academic success is the early mastery of essential literacy & numeracy skills
                                2. Development follows an orderly and logical progression
                                  1. Dev. is a gradually progressive process, not necessarily @ a constant rate
                                    1. Individuals learn to think & form multiple constructs for the same thing
                                      1. Individuals dev. @ different rates
                                        1. Combo of genetics (nature) & environment (nurture)
                                          1. Consider personality & temperament
                                  2. Make notes for each student regarding their dev. level (may not match up w their age or grade)
                                    1. Consider physical changes alongside cognitive & social changes
                                      1. Executive cognitive functioning: individuals organize, coordinate, & reflect on their thinking to achieve more efficient processing outcomes
                                        1. Learn by observing and direct guidance by others
                                          1. Piaget (1970) humans have 2 basic learning instincts from our natural curiosity
                                            1. 1. Desire to organize our behaviors & thoughts into coherent systems
                                              1. 2. Adaptation: innate drive to adjust to one's environment
                                                1. As independent entities, Children construct their own knowledge
                                                2. Vygotsky (1962;1978) Children learn more & more efficiently w some assistance & on tasks just beyond their independent abilities
                                                  1. Zone of Proximal Development
                                                  2. Yerkes-Dodson Law: challenging-but-attainable balance
                                                    1. Noam Chomsky (1957;1965) humans have a language-acquisition device, an innate capacity to learn, understand, and acquire language
                                                      1. Psychological well-being
                                                        1. 1. Self-worth
                                                          1. 2. Self-determination
                                                            1. 3. Relatedness
                                                        2. Temperament: accounts for the type, quality, & intensity of emotional actions & reactions
                                                          1. Teachers can help children develop moral reasoning by discussing morality & justice issues
                                                            1. Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory (1979): influence of environmental contexts on an individuals' social development
                                                            2. Chapter Three: Establishing a Positive Learning Environment
                                                              1. Children learn better & more efficiently in learning environments that are orderly & psychologically secure
                                                                1. All behaviors happen for a reason
                                                                  1. Intrapersonal (within-person) & interpersonal (btw people)
                                                                  2. Bandura's (1977;1986) reciprocal determinism: constant social interactions btw students & teachers reciprocally determines how each of them will interact in the future w each other
                                                                    1. Dynamic Classroom Management (DCM)
                                                                      1. 1. Develop caring, supportive relationships w & among studnets
                                                                        1. 2. Organize & implement instruction that optimizes student access to learning
                                                                          1. 3. Use groups to encourage student engagement in academic tasks
                                                                            1. 4. Promote dev. of social skills & self-regulation
                                                                              1. 5. Use appropriate interventions to assist students w behavior problems
                                                                      2. Fundamental student needs:
                                                                        1. 1. To belong & feel connected; teachers believe in them & treat them w respect
                                                                          1. 2. To feel autonomous & self-determination
                                                                            1. 3. To feel competent, successful, & accomplished
                                                                        2. Student behavior & psychological needs can be satisfied & transformed by exemplary teacher behaviors
                                                                          1. Positive teacher behaviors:
                                                                            1. Provide positive feedback
                                                                              1. Respond supportively
                                                                                1. Respond w more support to low-ability students
                                                                                  1. Ask Q's that the students can answer correctly
                                                                                    1. Student high probability for success tasks
                                                                                      1. Use time efficiently
                                                                                        1. Have low-ratio of punitive to positive interventions
                                                                                          1. Low rate of criticism
                                                                                            1. Keep off-task time at a minimun
                                                                                              1. Waste little time on transitions
                                                                                            2. Chapter Four: Making Instructional Decisions
                                                                                              1. How teachers decide what to teach & how to teach
                                                                                                1. Assessment & instruction to be designed together
                                                                                                  1. Put assessment considerations ahead of instructional considerations
                                                                                                  2. Backward design
                                                                                                    1. What do I want my students to learn?
                                                                                                      1. Instructional goal/ learning objective
                                                                                                      2. How will I know if they've learned?
                                                                                                        1. Assessment Q
                                                                                                        2. What will I teach?
                                                                                                          1. Topics/units that directly address the intended instructional goal/ learning objective
                                                                                                          2. How will I teach?
                                                                                                            1. Instructional method so that the objectives are fully realized
                                                                                                          3. Bloom's Taxonomy (1956): explains & clarifies the complex, hierarchical series of intellectual abilities involved in the acquisition & use of knowledge
                                                                                                            1. 6 distinct levels
                                                                                                              1. 1) Knowledge
                                                                                                                1. 2) Comprehension
                                                                                                                  1. 3) Application
                                                                                                                    1. 4) Analysis
                                                                                                                      1. 5) Synthesis
                                                                                                                        1. 6) Evaluation
                                                                                                                        2. All forms of thinking classified into 6 basic cognitive processes
                                                                                                                          1. Remembering
                                                                                                                            1. Understanding
                                                                                                                              1. Applying
                                                                                                                                1. Analyzing
                                                                                                                                  1. Creating
                                                                                                                                    1. Evaluating
                                                                                                                                  2. Universal Instructional Design (UID): physical spaces & objects that consider the needs of all users & those w disabilities
                                                                                                                                    1. Equitable accessibility & utility
                                                                                                                                      1. Classrooms that value respect & diversity
                                                                                                                                      2. Select-Organize-Integrate (SOI) information processing model of meaningful learning: learning happens when students engage in these cognitive processes
                                                                                                                                        1. 1) selecting relevant info
                                                                                                                                          1. 2) organizing it
                                                                                                                                            1. 3) integrating organized info w prior knowledge
                                                                                                                                            2. Engage students' motivations w challenging & meaningful tasks
                                                                                                                                              1. Problem-, Project-, Inquiry-based learning (PPIL)
                                                                                                                                                1. Students help teachers design comprehensive curricular tasks
                                                                                                                                                  1. Inquiry base
                                                                                                                                                  2. Complete tasks w peers collaboratively
                                                                                                                                                    1. Problem base
                                                                                                                                                    2. Create specific educational products
                                                                                                                                                      1. Project base
                                                                                                                                                      2. Reflect on learning
                                                                                                                                                    3. Chapter Five: Assessing Student Progress
                                                                                                                                                      1. Goal of instruction is to optimize student learning
                                                                                                                                                        1. Purpose of assessment is to measure & indicate student achievement
                                                                                                                                                          1. Diagnostic Assessment
                                                                                                                                                            1. Completed before instruction
                                                                                                                                                            2. Formative Assessment
                                                                                                                                                              1. Completed during instruction
                                                                                                                                                                1. Type 1: Asking students curricular Q's, monitoring progress during in-class activities
                                                                                                                                                                  1. Type 2: assigned seat work, homework, class participation, short quizzes to obtain grades
                                                                                                                                                                2. Summative Assessment
                                                                                                                                                                  1. Completed after instruction
                                                                                                                                                                3. Assessment Q's
                                                                                                                                                                  1. Selected-response
                                                                                                                                                                    1. True/False
                                                                                                                                                                      1. Matching
                                                                                                                                                                        1. Multiple Choice
                                                                                                                                                                        2. Constructed- response
                                                                                                                                                                          1. Short answer
                                                                                                                                                                            1. Restricted Essay/Essay
                                                                                                                                                                          2. Authentic Assessments
                                                                                                                                                                            1. Students use knowledge & skills to carry out academic tasks that replicate or are similar to those found in real world activities
                                                                                                                                                                            2. Portfolios
                                                                                                                                                                            3. Chapter Six: Individual Differences - Intellectual Abilities & Challenges
                                                                                                                                                                              1. Intelligence
                                                                                                                                                                                1. Learn from experience
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Adapt to one's environemnt
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Know about & control one's own thinking
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Most important: fluid, crystallized, Visual-spatial reasoning
                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Gardner's (1983) theory of multiple intelligences (MI)
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Linguistic
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Logical-mathematical
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Spatial
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Bodily-kinesthetic
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Musical
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Interpersonal
                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Intrapersonal
                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Naturalistic
                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Sternberg's (1985) triarchic theory of human intelligence
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Analytic/componential
                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Creative/experiential
                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Practical/contextual
                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. Genetics limit intellectual potential; environment determines how much potential is realized
                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Special Education
                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. High-incidence exceptionalities (mild disabilities)
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Low-incidence exceptionalities (moderate & severe disabilities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Inclusion philosophy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. IEPs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Psycho-educational assessment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Differentiated Instruction (DI)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. ADHD: emotional disturbance caused by a deficiency, imbalance, or inefficiency in brain chemicals that affect certain brain regions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Autism spectrum disorder: neurodevelopment disorder incorporating several diagnoses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Mild intellectual disability
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Gifted & talented
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Specific Learning Disorder
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Chapter Seven: Socio-Cultural Considerations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. FNMI Oral Histories/Education
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Aboriginal Ed: many risk factors
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Many protective factors & strategies!
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Reframe Q's in ways that the student can understand
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Students: battle with the internal struggle of desiring individuality, & at the same time shared a common identity (collectivism)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. There are many differences, & degrees of differences btw individuals from w/in groups as there are btw group members and non-group members
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Cultural identity should not be positioned w/in the group, but personally contextualized w/in the individual
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Critical consciousness
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Teachers should have an awareness of the cultural capital that students bring to the classroom& take advantage of the rich resources @ their disposal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Students & teachers work together to construct cultural meanings out of the content
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Banks' Model of Multicultural Education (2001)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Stereotype threat: fear that a behavior will confirm a negative stereotype about your identity group
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Reduces working memory capacity & undermines actual ability
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Prejudice: an unjustified & negative perception about an individual based on their group (any kind of group membership)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Socio-economic status (SES)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Social class based on education, occupation, & income
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Greatest impact on scholastic achievement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Poverty (part of SES) most negative influential factor on achievement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Education shown to break generational cycle of poverty & low educational attainment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Baumrind (1991) parenting style plays significant role on student scholastic achievemny
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Authoritarian (strongest negative effect)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Permissive (openly tolerant, few consequences)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Authoritative (highest grades, higher cognitive competence, best overall)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. Chapter Eight: Standardized Achievement Tests
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Good for differentiating btw groups of students for instructional reasons
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Evaluate teacher competencies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Conduct large-scale analyses of student abilities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Set performance standards to improve scores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Teacher-made tests: learning objectives in one classroom
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Standardized achievement tests: learning objectives common in ALL classrooms
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Criterion-referenced
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Aptitude tests: assesses a student's specific cognitive, social, & behavioral skills
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Norm-referenced
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Criticisms:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Coerces teaching to the test
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Does not increase student learning or their motivation to learn
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Arguably biased
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Content on reflected in the mandated curriculum
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Constructing better ones
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Critical to focus on serving student LEARNING
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Can be useful, but imperfect indtruments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Matching the tests to what teachers teach
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Tests must be specific enough to directly guide instruction
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. The assessment process must be minimally intrusive on classrooms
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Constructed response Q's over M/C Q's
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Ontario's EQAO
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Teachers prepare students for test writing: teach well, practice test-taking, show optimism & positivity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3. Classroom Management
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Immediately establish a calm and assertive atmosphere
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Negotiate rewards and consequences with your students
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Don't assume or expect children/youth to automatically & easily engaged in setting rules, boundaries, and limitations for their behavior (BE CONSCIOUS OF their dev. stage!)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Understanding motivation is key to understanding why things happen in classrooms
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Nothing makes learning less efficient than emotional worries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. PROACTIVE better than REACTIVE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Integrated within the class environment (not separate)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Teaching Philosophy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Teaching practice as constantly testable hypotheses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Teacher-centered approach with some student-centered aspects
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Constructivism: knowledge is actively constructed through experience
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Competence & Control beliefs affect student learning behaviors in classrooms
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Students need to be effective self-regulators of learning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Human beings are born with an innately powerful curiosity about the world around them
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Scaffolding: active instructional support while relating to, considering, & interacting w students' responses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Acquisition of the ability to learn from their mistakes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Student diversity must be acknowledged & celebrated, not merely accomodated
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. A culturally responsive practice that builds broad cultural knowledge & instructional base, & grows & changes as students, contexts, & school content shift
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. All students can be taught
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. School = high instrumental value! (Student belief that doing well in school provides direct events to their lives
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. For my students to be intrinsically motivated learners
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