Sarah Gourley
Mind Map by , created over 3 years ago

Bachelors Degree Primary Education Mind Map on DEVELOPMENTAL DOMAINS, created by Sarah Gourley on 03/20/2016.

Sarah Gourley
Created by Sarah Gourley over 3 years ago
Chapter 14
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1 Cognitive Domain (Vygotsky's Theory)
1.1 Zone of Proximal Development
1.1.1 Target new information at the level of the learner Make the new information relatable Link it to information they are already familiar with The target/new information should be challenging If the task is too easy it leads to boredom If the task is to hard it leads to frustration The new information should be just above the learners current learning ability This produces the optimal amount of learning
1.2 Learning Precedes Development
1.2.1 To develop you have to learn first
1.2.2 Learning produces development Development doesn't necessarily produce learning Learning disabilities Slow learners
1.3 Cultural Tools
1.3.1 Language
1.3.2 Writing
1.3.3 Numbers
1.3.4 Art
1.3.5 Codes
1.4 Play is important
1.4.1 Playing, exercise and other activities allow the learner to stretch cognitive function through physical activities, which become useful for purely cognitive functions both in the short and long term
1.5 Criticisms of Vygotsky's Theory
1.5.1 Not every child is at the same level of development What is the perfect challenge for some students, may be too difficult, or too easy for others This means that some students will have an optimal learning experience while others may become either frustrated or bored
1.5.2 The theory assumes that all subjects require the same level of knowledge/understanding
1.5.3 Positives of Vygotsky's Theory Culturally universal like Erikson's Theory Takes into consideration the different speeds and ways in which children learn and develop Focuses more on learning as a whole, rather than individual learning Does not have a hierarchical structure Allows for flexiblity Individuals don't have to be bound by certain norms, or phases that they are expected complete in order
1.5.4 Only provides a general outline of development
1.6 Knowledge is co-constructed
1.6.1 Learning is not just dependant on the learner Learning is affected (positively or negatively) by the environment A good classroom and home environment is key to effective learning A bad class/home environment will adversely affect the learner Learning is affected (positively or negatively) by other people Encouragement is important Lack of encouragement is detrimental to the self-esteem of the individual Constructive criticism is important Criticism without reason is damaging to the individual and their desire to learn
2 Social and Emotional Domain (Erikson's Psychosocial Theory)
2.1 The two dimensions of 'self' in Erikson's Theory
2.1.1 Self - esteem Self-esteem is how an individual sees and feels about themselves The level of pride a person has in themselves Affective judgement (feelings) E.g. "It makes me feel good when I get a good mark in science."
2.1.2 Self-concept Self-concept is the ideas, attitudes and beliefs an individual has about themselves in a specific area. Self-concept can change and develop over time Self-concept can be influenced by social comparison Self-concept is the cognitive judgement an individual has about their aptitude in a specific area. E.g. "I am good at Math, but I am not good at English."
2.2 Crises
2.2.1 In each of the eight stages of development, there is a set of 'crises' that must be overcome to reach optimal development within that stage, and develop the ego-identity of the individual Adaptive (positive) resolution of the 'crises' Promotes development and a greater self-concept Maladaptive (negative) resolution of the 'crises' Which supposedly makes it harder for the individual to move to the next stage of development, and may damage their self-concept The 'crises' are caused by both biological maturation (age) and the social environment of the individual
2.3 The Eight Stages of Erikson's theory
2.3.1 Stage one - birth to 18 months Trust vs. Mistrust The individual has learnt to trust their parents/gardians
2.3.2 Stage two - 18 months to 3 years Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Starts to show self expression (own opinions/will, tests the boundaries)
2.3.3 Stage three - 3 to 6 years Initiative vs. Guilt Becoming more independent, learning social relationships and beginning to understand their place in the family unit
2.3.4 Stage four - 6 to 12 years Industry vs. Inferiority Developing social skills, relationships with peers become extremely important, become aware of their strengths and weaknesses
2.3.5 Stage five - 13-19 years Identity vs. confusion Become aware of other peoples opinions of them, start to care about what they wear, how they look, how they can fit in etc.
2.3.6 Stage six - 20 to 35 years Intimacy vs. Isolation There's a strong desire to fall in love and start a family. Inability to develop intimacy in any relationship most likely produces feelings of isolation.
2.3.7 Stage seven - 35 to 65 years Generativity vs. Stagnation Working and contributing to society in one way or another, raising children. If unable to find things to do/be productive, it can lead to feelings of stagnation
2.3.8 Stage eight - 65 years + Integrity vs. Dispair Look back on their life, think about what they have and have not done. Not having done everything they wanted to do can lead to despair.
2.4 Criticisms of Erikson's Theory
2.4.1 Many people reflect on life before stage eight For example, a 19 year old who has just been diagnosed with a terminal illness is forced to reflect on their life well before they reach the age of 65+
2.4.2 That an individual must go through 'crises' to develop their ego-identity What does he mean by crises? Not every person goes through major crises
2.4.3 It's not individualised because people deal with things differently
2.4.4 Positives of Erikson's Theory Is universal across all cultures and time periods Is not limited to one religion, race, or time Is just as applicable to Hindu's, as to Muslims, as to Christians Classed in stages not phases or transitions Other theorists classed them as phases and transitions rather than stages The stages are quite accurate in their age brackets Give or take a few years Maintains the view that development continues all through life Development does not stop at any point
3 Spiritual Domain (Fowler's Theory)
3.1 The six stages of Fowler's theory (plus stage 0)
3.1.1 Stage zero - Infancy Primal faith The infant forms a trust in parents and or caregivers This offsets separation anxiety in young children May form also form a mistrust of parents and or caregivers
3.1.2 Stage four - Late adolesence to young adulthood Individuative-reflective faith Become more autonomous Aren't defined by a group Make their own decisions about their faith Take responsibility for their own beliefs Own their own faith
3.1.3 Stage six - Adulthood (may or may not occur) Universalizing faith Break away from the restraints of society and commit fully to their beliefs and values E.g. Love, absolute justice, opposing evil in a non-violent way Willing to pay the ultimate price for their decision
3.1.4 Stage two - School age Mythic-literal faith Can distinguish between make-believe and reality Able to accept that there is a God Able to accept that other people may not have the same belief as they do View him as consistant, caring, and just ruler/parent figure Child has the belief that good is rewarded and bad is punished Learn later on that bad things happen to good people and good things happen to bad people
3.1.5 Stage three - Adolesence Synthetic-conventional faith Can think logically Begin to question things "Is god real?" Critical thinking and reasoning Many things begin to have a greater influence on their outlook on themselves and their beliefs. Identity becomes a big concern Concerned with others opnions of them Their circle of friends becomes more important Crave a sense of belonging Desire to fit in
3.1.6 Stage one - Toddler to Preschool age Intuitive-projective faith Not bound by logic No real understanding of God but they believe Haven't adopted the skepticism that comes with adulthood Believe what they're told E.g. Believe in Santa Claus, the Easter Bunny, etc.
3.1.7 Stage five - Adulthood Conjunctive faith More tolerant of other peoples values and beliefs Recognise that understanding other beliefs can deepen their own values Rely on their own values and beliefs Makes sense of paradoxes within their faith E.g. God is sovereign and yet lowered Himself to become a human and be put to death
3.2 Criticisms of Fowler's Theory
3.2.1 It's a hierarchical structure (like Piaget's Theory) Some people dont follow a set structure Possibly because of a pivotal and/or traumatic moment May have caused them to reach a stage earlier or later than Fowler's theory states
3.2.2 Positives of Fowler's Theory Most people follow these stages, whether in order or not The stages up to toddler/preschool age are especially accurate as they have not yet been able to form their own opinions and beliefs about God Even though the stages are meant to be hierarchical, they can also be flexible depending on the person Fowler is true in saying that many people don't reach a stage in life where they are willing to pay the ultimate price for what they believe in He is also true in saying that the people who do reach this stage, break away from the restraints of society and fully commit to their values and beliefs For example: Persecuted Christians in Syria stand firm in their beliefs even unto death
4 Moral Developmental Theory (Kohlberg's Theory)
4.1 The three levels of Kohlberg's Theory
4.1.1 Level one: Pre-conventional moral reasoning Stage 1 Punishment-Obedience Orientation Obedience for obedience sake - because they were told to obey People avoid breaking rules for fear of punishment Criticisms Living in fear of punishment is not always healthy. For example: Women who have been abused don't want to report it because their attacker has threatened to hurt them if they told anyone Stage 2 Instrumental Relativist Orientation Personal reward and gain Acting in accordance with individual interests (egocentrics) "You scratch my back and I'll scratch yours." Criticisms Many times the needs of people conflict with each other and there can't always be a compromise
4.1.2 Level two: Conventional moral reasoning Stage 3 Good boy/nice girl orientation Living up to what is expected of them Values maintaining relationships - "What will people think of me?" Desires approval from people Criticims Everyone wants something different from the same person, this will eventually result in having to disappoint someone Stage 4 Law and order orientation The right thing to do is to contribute to society and fulfill social duties Rules are to be followed and obeyed unless they're in conflict with other duties Criticims Absolute obedience to authority is not healthy Example: Marshall Applewhite asked his cult to commit suicide to go up to a UFO waiting for them. All 39 people obeyed without question
4.1.3 Level three: Post-conventional moral reasoning Stage 5 Social Contract orientation Have an awareness of the social contracts between individuals and that they may have different moral perspectives Rules shouldn't be blindly followed Rules should exist to benefit all of society and should be changed if necessary Criticims What if the minority group didn't agree with the consensus of the majority, would they still follow those rules? Stage 6 Universal Ethical Principles orientation Right and wrong is based on personal ethical principals Equal Human rights, Justice, etc. Criticims Personal morality is not an infallible standard for behaviour A persons conscience is buildt upon the values and beliefs that they have adopted throughout life. Each person is different Jesus is an example of a person who regarded His personal beliefs and morals as higher than the law
4.2 The Heinz Dilemma
4.2.1 Proposed a scenario and gave predictions on the reactions that would be common to each stage based on their moral reasoning's
4.3 Criticisms of Kohlberg's Theory
4.3.1 Positives of Kohlberg's Theory His stages are not defined by an age group This allows for more flexibility in regards to what stage a person is at Once someone reaches a stage they rarely go backwards 'Rarely' Indicates that it is possible, but highly unlikely
4.3.2 Some people are a mix of multiple stages Teenagers, for example, are commonly a mix of stages 2, 3 and 5
4.3.3 It is supposed to be a hierarchical structure, with every person passing through the same stages in the same order However, because it isn't limited by ages, it can be interpreted as more flexible