Cells

Ellie  Hutchinson
Mind Map by Ellie Hutchinson, updated more than 1 year ago
Ellie  Hutchinson
Created by Ellie Hutchinson over 4 years ago
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Description

Cell Structure

Resource summary

Cells
  1. Prokaryotic
    1. Bacteria
    2. Eukaryotic
      1. Animals
        1. Plants
          1. Fungi
          2. Components in a Bacterium
            1. DNA

              Annotations:

              • Single circular molecule of DNA not associated with protein and free in the cytoplasm Carries genetic codes for proteins
              1. Cell Wall

                Annotations:

                • Contains Murein: a glycoprotein Prevents osmotic lysis Rigid and strengthening
                1. Cytoplasm
                  1. Cell surface membrane

                    Annotations:

                    • Phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins Controls passage of substances across exchange surfaces by passive processes and active transport
                    1. Ribosomes

                      Annotations:

                      • Small structure in cytoplasm Protein Synthesis
                      1. Flagellum

                        Annotations:

                        • Thin rotating fibre Responsible for movement of the cell
                        1. Plasmids

                          Annotations:

                          • 1 or more small loops of DNA, can replicate independently. Passes genetic info via conjugation to other bacteria
                          1. Capsule

                            Annotations:

                            • Extra layer around cell wall Protects from desiccation, phagocytosis and some pathogens
                          2. Components in animal cells
                            1. Plasma Membrane

                              Annotations:

                              • Phospholipid bilayer which contains proteins Selectively permeable Allows cell identification
                              1. Nucleus

                                Annotations:

                                • Surrounded by a nuclear envelope with nuclear pores. Nucleolus and chromatin (DNA and protein) are present. Contains genetic codes for making proteins. Nucleolus manufactures ribosomes
                                1. Mitochondrion

                                  Annotations:

                                  • Surrounded by 2 membranes- Inner membrane folded & forms cristae Fluid inside is the matrix Produces ATP from aerobic respiration ATP= energy store used by cells for processes like active transport and protein synthesis
                                  1. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

                                    Annotations:

                                    • Series of tubes in cytoplasm of cell. Appears rough due to ribosomes attached Synthesis and transport of proteins through cytoplasm
                                    1. Ribosomes

                                      Annotations:

                                      • Small organelle not surrounded by membrane Protein synthesis
                                      1. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

                                        Annotations:

                                        • Series of tubes in cytoplasm with no ribosomes attached. Synthesises and transports lipids
                                        1. Golgi Apparatus and Vesicles

                                          Annotations:

                                          • Stack of flattened sacs. Vesicles bud off from the ends of the sacs. Modifies proteins that are in the cell and packages them into vesicles. Forms lysosomes
                                          1. Lysosomes

                                            Annotations:

                                            • Membrane bound organelle containing digestive enzymes. Digest unwanted material in the cell
                                          2. Components in Plant Cells
                                            1. Majority of the same as animals
                                              1. Cell Wall

                                                Annotations:

                                                • Made of cellulose, has a high tensile strength. Prevents osmotic lysis
                                                1. Vacoule

                                                  Annotations:

                                                  • Filled with sap- a weak solution of sugars and salts. Helps give the cell rigidity
                                                  1. Chloroplasts

                                                    Annotations:

                                                    • Typically in the mesophyll cell in leaves. Allows photosynthesis to take place.
                                                  2. Viruses
                                                    1. NOT CELLS... acellular
                                                      1. Genetic Material

                                                        Annotations:

                                                        • either DNA or RNA
                                                        1. Capsid

                                                          Annotations:

                                                          • A protein coat
                                                          1. Attachment protein

                                                            Annotations:

                                                            • Allows virus to attach to host cell thus use that cells machinery to replicate. Complementary to receptors on host cell membrane
                                                          2. Cell Fractionation
                                                            1. 1. Cells broken open by homogeniser
                                                              1. Cell debris is filtered leaving a suspension
                                                              2. 2, Ultracentrifugation
                                                                1. Resultant suspension is centrifuged at low speed
                                                                  1. Most dense organelle is seperated
                                                                    1. Rest are still suspended in supernatant
                                                                      1. Supernatant poured into separate tube and spun faster
                                                                  2. Nuclei is most likely to be first separated (most dense), then mitochondria, lysosomes, ribosmes
                                                                  3. Conditions
                                                                    1. Buffer

                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                      • Controls PH level to be constant so denaturation of enzymes and proteins will be prevented
                                                                      1. Cold temp

                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                        • reduce enzyme activity to prevent digestion of organelles
                                                                        1. Isotonic

                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                          • Prevents osmotic lysis
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