Utilitarianisim

jenny_allen
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Ethics Mind Map on Utilitarianisim, created by jenny_allen on 05/04/2013.

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jenny_allen
Created by jenny_allen over 6 years ago
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Utilitarianisim
1 ACT UTILITARIANISM
1.1 JEREMY BENTHAM
1.1.1 Began theory of Utilitarianism to work out how good/bad the consequences of an action would be.
1.1.1.1 Principle of Utility = theory of usefulness - 'the greatest good for the greatest number'.
1.1.1.1.1 Theory is quantitative (focuses on the majority).
1.1.2 Moral acts should maximise pleasure and minimise pain. Happiness = pleasure minus pain.
1.2 HEDONIC CALCULUS = a way of 'measuring' the consequences of an action/the pleasure it would bring. Had 7 elements:
1.2.1 INTENSITY of pleasure.
1.2.2 DURATION of pleasure.
1.2.3 CERTAINTY of pleasure.
1.2.4 EXTENT of pleasure.
1.2.5 PROPINQUITY of pleasure (how near/far).
1.2.6 PURITY of pleasure.
1.2.7 FECUNDITY of pleasure (how continuous).
1.3 WEAKNESSES
1.3.1 Difficult to predict consequences.
1.3.2 Can potentially justify any act.
1.3.3 Difficult to define pleasure.
1.3.4 Doesn't protect the minority.
2 RULE UTILITARIANISM
2.1 JOHN STUART MILL
2.1.1 Greatest Happiness Principle = actions are right if they promote happiness. By happiness is intended pleasure and the absence of pain.
2.1.2 Theory is qualitative as it focuses on the quality of the pleasure.
2.1.2.1 Intellectual, spiritual and cultural pleasures are better than physical ones.
2.1.2.1.1 'Beter to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied'.
2.2 Establishing general rules that follow utilitarian principles.
2.2.1 Should produce the greatest happiness if followed universally.
2.3 WEAKNESSES
2.3.1 Difficult to predict consequences.
2.3.2 Invoking rules means it becomes deontological.
3 PREFERENCE UTILITARIANISM
3.1 Moral actions are right according to how they fit the preferences involved.
3.2 R.M.HARE
3.2.1 Need to consider own preference and that of others.
3.2.2 'Equal preferences count equally, whatever their content.'
3.2.3 Should 'stand in someone else's shoes'.
3.2.4 Treat everyone impartially.
3.3 PETER SINGER
3.3.1 Should take the viewpoint of an IMPARTIAL SPECTATOR,
3.3.1.1 'Our own preferences cannot count any more than the preferences of others'.
3.3.2 Best possible consequences = what's in the best interest of those involved.
4 Teleological approach - moral actions are right/wrong according to their outcome.
5 Consequentialist theory - someone decides whether actions are good/bad by their consequences.
6 Hedonistic theory as 'good' is defined in terms of happiness and pleasure.
7 STRENGTHS
7.1 Straightforward - based on single principle of minimising pain/maximising pleasure.
7.2 Promotes the well-being of the greatest number.
7.3 Applicable in real life situations.
7.4 Seems natural to follow - natural to weigh up consequences.
8 WEAKNESSES
8.1 Doesn't protect the minority.
8.2 Can advocate justice.
8.3 Difficult to predict consequences.
8.4 People define 'pleasure' and 'happiness' in different ways.

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