Kant

jenny_allen
Mind Map by jenny_allen, updated more than 1 year ago
jenny_allen
Created by jenny_allen almost 7 years ago
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Ethics Mind Map on Kant, created by jenny_allen on 05/04/2013.
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Kant
1 Believed in an objective right and wrong based on REASON.
1.1 PRACTICAL REASON
1.1.1 Looks at evidence and argument and tells you what ought to be done.
1.1.2 People are aware of the moral law at work within them - a sense of moral 'ought'.
1.1.2.1 A PRIORI
1.1.2.1.1 Knowledge without experience.
2 A DEONTOLOGICAL approach - the act itself is more important than the consequences.
3 FREEDOM
3.1 To act morally then must be capable of exercising freedom/autonomy of will
3.1.1 GOOD WILL
3.1.1.1 Kant's starting point.
3.1.1.2 Making a moral choice expresses good will.
4 DUTY
4.1 = what makes the good will good.
4.2 Duty should be done for its own sake - it doesn't matter whether you/others benefit from it.
4.2.1 No moral worth in satisfaction gained from doing duty.
5 Practical reason must give the will commands/imperatives.
5.1 HYPOTHETICAL IMPERATIVE
5.1.1 Are not moral commands, don't apply to everyone.
5.1.2 Actions that achieve some goal/end.
5.1.2.1 'if' - e.g if I want to lose weight I ought to exercise more.
5.2 CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE
5.2.1 Moral commands - absolute moral obligations without reference to other ends.
5.2.2 Universalisation
5.2.2.1 Universalise principles of maxims without contradiction.
5.2.2.1.1 Maxim = General rule in accordance with which intend to act.
5.2.2.1.2 Act should be carried out if everyone in the same situation should act in the same way.
5.2.3 Humans as ends not merely means
5.2.3.1 Humans can't be the means by which a goal is achieved.
5.2.3.1.1 Suffering of an individual should never be justified because the majority benefitted.
5.2.4 Kingdom of Ends
5.2.4.1 Act as if we live in a Kingdom of Ends, based on the assumption that others would act morally/treat others as ends not means.
6 POSTULATES OF PRACTICAL REASON
6.1 GOD & IMMORTALITY
6.1.1 Aim in acting morally is to be worthy of being happy.
6.1.2 SUMMUM BONUM = supreme good that we pursue through moral acts.
6.1.2.1 Can't be achieved in this life so must be a life after death where we can achieve it (morality ultimately leads to God.
6.2 FREEDOM
7 STRENGTHS
7.1 Straightforward, based on reason.
7.1.1 Clear criteria to assess what is moral.
7.2 Categorical imperative gives rules that apply to everyone and command us to respect human life.
7.3 Aims to treat everyone fairly and justly.
7.4 Humans valued to be of intrinsic worth - cannot be exploited.
8 WEAKNESSES
8.1 Not easily applicable to moral situations as duties can conflict - not suited to world politics.
8.2 Categorical imperative only works if everyone does it.
8.3 In human nature to consider consequences, not just putting everything down to duty.
9 W.D.ROSS
9.1 Argues that exceptions should be made to Kant's duties.
9.1.1 PRIMA FACIE DUTIES = 'first sight duties'
9.1.1.1 FIDELITY
9.1.1.2 REPARATION FOR HARM
9.1.1.3 GRATITUDE
9.1.1.4 JUSTICE
9.1.1.5 BENEFICIENCE
9.1.1.6 SELF-IMPROVEMENT
9.1.1.7 NON-MALEFICENCE
9.1.1.8 Are conditional and can be outweighed by more compelling duties.
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