1.1 The Critique of Pure Reason, 1781
The Critique of Practical Reason, 1788
1.1.1 What humans can know directly through practical reason
(Syntheic) and through pure reason (Analytic) is limited by
our existence within space and time
220.127.116.11 The Noumenal - How things really are
The Pheunoumenal - how we tangibly
1.2 The goodness of 'Good
Will' is not from its results
1.2.1 An evil act that leads
to good does not
render the intent of
the original act good
1.2.2 "Act for the sake of Duty"
A grocer does not overcharge his customers, so people are served honesty - in order for everyone to buy his products
"We cannot assume him to have an inclination towards his customers, leading him out of love, to not preference one man over another. The action was not done out of duty or inclination, but self interest"
1.3 He rejects the hypothetical
1.3.1 If I want to 'x' I must do 'y'
1.4 1. Has to be universally applied
2. Never treat another as a means
to an end 3. Create your
maxims as if you were a member
of a kingdom of ends
The Formulae of right action
1.4.1 Universally Required Morals
act as a Catagorical Imperitive
If you owed money, but spent that money on something you wanted, you would be breaking the maxim of 'Keep your promises.' If everybody failed to keep promises, they would not mean anything and thus is not Universally applicable
1.4.2 "Be Fair to your customers" is universally
applicable, but "Be fair to your customers
so they return" is not. The hypothetical
imperitive seeks to achieve an end.
1.5 You have no responsibility for others
as they are autonomos as their own
If a murderer asks you where their intended victim is, you should not lie as Lying is wrong.
1.6 Catagorical Imperitive
is good without qualification
1.7 Sunnom Bonnem
1.7.1 Afterlife thus is required in order to
achieve the complete order of things
1.7.2 Moral Law would be judged
2 W D Ross
2.1 Prima Facie duties
2.1.1 Conditional duties that ought
to be followed unless there is
an over riding reason not to
"I ought to lie, unless lying will save a life"
2.1.2 The mature person
understand which duties to
follow 'at first glance'
18.104.22.168 Helps overcome
dilemmas with conflicting
duties. Do not lie?
Protect innocent lives?
2.2 Morality is objective, but not
absolute and universal and can be
adapted within different contexts
1. Faithful to promises
2. Appreciation for support
3. Impartial, equal treatment
4. Help for others
6. Avoid the harm of others
2.3.1 This list is
room for self
3.1.1 With sufficient ingenuity, almost every precept
can become universalized. All I need to do is
characterize proposed actions in such a way
that the maxim will permit me to do what I want
whilst prohibiting others from ding what would
nullify the maxim if universalized. The test of the
catagorical imperitive imposes restrictions only
on those insufficiently equipped with ingenuity.
3.2 How far can goodwill mitigate a disastrous
3.3 Can we be satisfied by being told
"Do your duty" without knowing
3.4 Reductio ad absurdum: "All girls with red hair
should wear green" can be universilized, this
does not make it a moral statement
3.5 Naturalistic Fallacy - The 'is' 'ought'
3.6.1 There is more to the moral point of
view than willingness to
universalize ones rules
3.7 Peter Singer
3.7.1 Only once you remove sympathy
with humans can you no longer be
moved by inclination
3.7.2 Moral Fanaticism - The elevation
of perceived duty above actual
3.8 Causal Determinism - If you do 'x' you will cause 'y' therefore
you are competely responsible, autonomously, for any results
caused by your actions
3.9.1 Gives no moral social outlines. For example, following Kantian Ethics
does not determine whether a system of social property is moral as
both answers entail an inability to be universialised
3.9.2 If everyone gave to the poor, there would be no
poor, therefore this is a contradiction and so you
'Ought not to give to the poor'