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memory chapter 3: models, memory in everyday life

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lauren.lau75
Created by lauren.lau75 over 5 years ago
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1 Models
1.1 Working Memory Model
1.1.1 Baddeley and Hitch (1974) - Developed WMM to challenge the concept of a single unitary store for short-term memory. The working memory model is based upon the findings of the dual-task study and suggests that there are four separate components to our working memory (STM).
1.1.2 Strengths
1.1.2.1 Evidence to support PHONOLOGICAL LOOP
1.1.2.1.1 Baddeley (1975) word length effect (short words easier to recall than long). Prevention from being able to rehearse words by repeating an irrelevant sound. The word length effect was lost as articulatory suppression fills the phonological loop.
1.1.2.2 Evidence to support VISUO-SPATIAL SKETCHPAD
1.1.2.2.1 Baddeley (1973) PPts hold a pointer with a moving spot of light whilst visualising the block capital letter F. Tracking and letter imagery tasks were competing for the limited resources of the visuo-spatial scratch pad. Whereas the tracking and verbal tasks use separate components so they are not competing.
1.1.3 Weaknesses
1.1.3.1 Very little is known about the central executive (even though it is an important feature)
1.1.3.1.1 Problems specifying the precise function of the central executive
1.1.3.1.1.1 Richardson (1984)
1.1.3.2 research is lab based
1.1.3.2.1 lack of ecological validity
1.1.3.2.1.1 Can't be generalised to everyday life situations
1.1.3.3 Robbins (1996) Chess players
1.1.3.3.1 20 chess players- given 10 seconds to remember the position of 16 pieces from a chess game.
1.1.3.3.1.1 A) used the central executive by generating random number sequences while avoiding meaningful combinations (H, G, P)
1.1.3.3.1.2 B) carried out articulatory suppression task ( said 'the, the, the' in time with a metronome)
1.1.3.3.2 Findings - letter generation = poor memory and performance. articulatory suppression task = good memory and performance
1.1.3.3.3 conclusions - it is the central executive that plays a role in remembering chess positions rather than the phonological loop
1.1.3.3.3.1 The controlled experiment allows the researcher to claim cause and effect
1.1.3.3.3.1.1 letter generation task causes poor memory recall
1.1.3.3.3.2 Visuo-spatial sketchpad is responsible for remembering chess positions
1.1.3.3.3.3 generating random letters can engage the central executive
1.1.4 Features
1.1.4.1 Episodic Buffer
1.1.4.1.1 responsible for integrating & manipulating material
1.1.4.1.2 limited capacity
1.1.4.1.3 depends heavily on central executive
1.1.4.1.4 binds together information from different sources into chunks/episodes
1.1.4.1.5 recalls material from LTM & integrates it into STM when working memory requires it
1.1.4.1.5.1 e.g. imagine and elephant ice-skating
1.1.4.2 Central Executive
1.1.4.2.1 problem solving/decision-making
1.1.4.2.2 controls attention
1.1.4.2.3 Plans and synthesises information from subsidiary systems and LTM
1.1.4.2.4 flexible
1.1.4.2.5 limited storage capacity
1.1.4.2.6 Can only attend to limited no. of things at a time
1.1.4.3 Phonological Loop
1.1.4.3.1 stores limited number of speech-based sounds for brief periods
1.1.4.3.2 phonological store (inner ear)
1.1.4.3.2.1 allows acoustically coded items to be stored for a brief period
1.1.4.3.3 articulatory control system (the inner voice)
1.1.4.3.3.1 allows sub-vocal repetition of the items stored in the phonological store.
1.1.4.4 Visuo-spatial Sketchpad
1.1.4.4.1 stores visual and spatial information (inner eye)
1.1.4.4.2 responsible for setting up and manipulating mental images
1.1.4.4.3 limited capacity
1.1.4.4.3.1 limits of the two systems are independent
1.1.4.4.3.1.1 can use the phonological loop at the same time as visuo-spatial sketchpad
1.2 Multi-store Model
1.2.1 Atkinson and Schiffrin (1968)
1.2.2 linear model - shows how information flows through the processes of memory
1.2.3 Features
1.2.3.1 information passes through each stage of the system in a linear fashion
1.2.3.2 Short term memory
1.2.3.2.1 capacity of storing 7 +/-2 items in an acoustic code
1.2.3.2.1.1 Remembers things by sound
1.2.3.2.2 Limited duration of ~15-30 secs
1.2.3.2.3 Maintenance rehearsal is needed to keep the information in the short term memory
1.2.3.2.3.1 Otherwise information will be lost within 30 secs
1.2.3.2.3.2 Memories are lost from STM either because new information comes along and pushes the old information out (displacement), or they fade away (decay)
1.2.3.2.4 Rehearsal is needed to transfer the information into the LTM
1.2.3.3 Long term memory
1.2.3.3.1 semantic encoding
1.2.3.3.2 unlimited capacity
1.2.3.3.3 Unlimited duration
1.2.3.3.3.1 memory traces can decay
1.2.3.3.3.2 new info interferes with the old info
1.2.3.3.3.3 cues in environment - retrieval failure
1.2.3.4 Sensory memory
1.2.3.4.1 external stimuli first enters the sensory memory
1.2.3.4.2 Registers information for brief periods
1.2.3.4.2.1 ATTENTION needs to be paid for information to pass to the short term memory
2 Memory in everyday life
2.1 Ways to improve memory
2.1.1 paying attention
2.1.2 Rehearsing
2.1.3 Avoid interference
2.1.4 Organise
2.1.5 Cues
2.1.6 Mnemonics
2.1.7 PQRST
2.1.8 Spaced/Distributed Practice
2.2 Eye-witness Testimony
2.2.1 Inaccurate testimony
2.2.1.1 Anxiety of witnesses in lab studies
2.2.1.2 Shemas
2.2.1.3 Age
2.2.1.4 Misleading Information
2.2.1.5 Leading Questions
2.2.2 Accurate testimony
2.2.2.1 Anxiety of Witness in real-life situations
2.2.2.2 Serious Consequences of testimony
2.2.2.3 Blatantly inaccurate misinformation
2.2.2.4 Cognitive interviews