elspeth96
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

A Levels Chemistry Mind Map on Alcohol, created by elspeth96 on 04/02/2014.

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elspeth96
Created by elspeth96 over 5 years ago
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Alcohol
1 -OH Functional Group
2 Soluble due to -OH group forming hydrogen bonds with water
2.1 Hydrogen bonding reduces volatility (Higher Bp)
2.2 Solubility decreases with larger length chains. Long Chains disrupt hydrogen bonding between other water molecules
3 CnH2n+1OH
4 Ethanol C2H5OH
4.1 Hydration of Ethene
4.1.1 100% Atom Economy
4.1.2 Steam and Ethene with phosphoric acid catalyst
4.2 Fermentation of sugars
4.2.1 Involving yeast
4.2.2 Anaerobic respiration - without oxygen
4.2.3 Exothermic reaction
4.2.4 Fermentation stops at 15% as the ethanol kills yeast
4.2.4.1 Distillation required to increase the concentration
5 Reactions With:
5.1 Primary Alcohols
5.1.1 Gentle Heating under distillation. Acidified dichromate [O]
5.1.1.1 Aldehyde and water
5.1.1.1.1 -CHO Group
5.1.1.2 Rotting apples odour
5.1.2 Strong heating under reflux. Excess 2[O] acidified dichromate.
5.1.2.1 Carboxylic Acid and Water
5.1.2.1.1 -COOH Group
5.1.2.2 Vinegar Odour
5.1.2.3 Turns Litmus paper red
5.2 Secondary Alcohols
5.2.1 Reflux with excess 2[O] acidified dichromate
5.2.1.1 Ketone
5.2.1.1.1 -COC- Group
5.2.1.2 Fruity Odour
5.3 Alcohol and Ethanoic acid
5.3.1 Ester and water
5.3.1.1 E.g. CH3CH2OOCCH3
5.3.2 Fruity Smell
5.4 Colour change from Orange to Green
6 Tertiary Structures cannot be oxidised

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