(2) Effectiveness of representation


A level People and Politics (Elections and voting) Mind Map on (2) Effectiveness of representation, created by Marcus Danvers on 04/03/2014.
Marcus  Danvers
Mind Map by Marcus Danvers, updated more than 1 year ago
Marcus  Danvers
Created by Marcus Danvers almost 9 years ago

Resource summary

(2) Effectiveness of representation
  1. Trusteeship
    1. Strengths
      1. Traditional form of representation
        1. Trustees should act on behalf of other, using their superior knoloedge, better education or greater experience - called Burkean repersenation
          1. Representative should think for themselves and use their own judgment because the mass people may not know their best interest
        2. Criticisms
          1. Allowing politicians to think for themselves creates "gap" between the view of ordinary citizens and the view of their representatives
            1. Gap could be filled by either by a shortening of electoral terms or by the introduction of recall elections
            2. The trusteeship model is largely out of date - development of party system in the 1800, scope for mp's to think is limited - free votes, back bench revolts
          2. The doctrine of the mandate
            1. strengths
              1. It is the most influential theory of representation in modern politics
                1. The winning party has a "popular" mandate of authority to carry out the polices
                  1. These policy are contained in election manifestos - the party carries out representation
                    1. This provides a clear class of party unity and party discipline
                      1. Politicians serve their constituents not by thinking for themselves, by remaining loyal to their and its polices
                      2. Mandate democracy
                        1. The strengh of the mandate doctrine is that it takes account of the undoubted importance in modern politics of party labels and party policises
                          1. In UK elections voters on most occasions vote for a party and give little or no attention to the strengths or weakness of individual candidates
                        2. Criticisms
                          1. it is based on a highly questionable model of voting behaviour
                            1. Little evidence voters vote rationally, basis on there manifesto
                            2. Voting for a party does not mean support for its entire manifesto
                              1. No many of forcing government to carry out their manifesto
                                1. "Votting winning" policies that prove to be difficult to implement in practice
                                2. who the mandate falls to: the party or the prime minister
                                  1. There are a growing tendency for PM to claim a "personal mandate", on the basis of their role in leading the party to power
                                    1. Idea of a personal mandate may simply allow PM to act however they wish
                                    2. Formantion of the coalition governemnt means the doctrine of the mandate may become unworkable, as post-election deals are negotiated between coaltion partners, through which each party abandons certian manifesto promies
                                  2. Descriptive representation
                                    1. Stengths
                                      1. Descriptive representation is basd on the idea that representatives should typify or resemble the group they claim to represent
                                        1. This notion is embodies in the idea of a "representative cross-section", as used by market researched and opinion pollsters
                                          1. Represnatives government would constitue a microcsm of the larger society, containing members drawn from all group and sections in society, and the numbers are proportinal to society
                                            1. Significan concern with "under-representaion" of groups such as women..
                                              1. The basis for this kind of represnetation is that it is neccesary for people to share the experiences of a particular group in order to be fully able to identify with its interests
                                                1. They must have "walked in their shoes"
                                              2. criticisms
                                                1. If all representatives simply express the interests of the groups, represntation becomes exclusive or narow, with no one being able to defend the common good or advance a broader public interest
                                                  1. A government that is a microcosm of society would reflect that society's weaknesses as well its strengths
                                                    1. Majority of population could be apathetic, ill-informed or poorly educated
                                                    2. It is difficult to see how charateristic represnetation can be reconiled with electoral choice
                                                      1. Labour party's attempt to boost female represnetation in Parliament through all-women shortlists of parliamentary candidates was declared to be illegal under equal oppotunities legislation
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