Enzymes - key points

01west
Mind Map by 01west, updated more than 1 year ago
01west
Created by 01west almost 7 years ago
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GCSE Biology (Enzymes) Mind Map on Enzymes - key points, created by 01west on 04/06/2014.

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Enzymes - key points
1 Speeding up digestion
1.1 Bile produced by the live neutralises acid and emulsifies fats.
1.2 The enzymes made in the pancreas and the small intestine work best in alkaline conditions
1.3 The enzymes of the stomach work best in acid conditions
2 High-tech enzymes
2.1 Enzymes can be produced industrially, both to diagnose and to treat disease.
2.2 Enzymes in detergents break down biological stains such as sweat. They work at low temperatures so use less electricity, which is cheaper and environmentally friendly.
2.2.1 They originally caused problems with allergies, but this has been solved now. The low temperature washes are less good at killing pathogens; but higher temperatures can denature the enzymes.
3 Factors affecting enzyme action
3.1 Enzyme activity is affected by temperature and pH
3.2 High temperature and the wrong pH can affect the shape of the active site of an enzyme and stop it working
4 Making use of enzymes
4.1 Biological detergents may contain proteases and lipases.
4.2 Some micro-organisms produce enzymes that pass out of the cell and can be used in different ways.
4.3 Proteases, carbohydrates and isomerase are all used in the food industry.
5 Enzyme in digestion
5.1 Digestive enzymes are produced by specialised cells in glands and in the lining of the gut. They work outside of the body cells in the gut itself.
5.2 Different enzymes catalyse the breakdown of carbohydrates, protein and fats into smaller, soluble molecules during digestion
6 Proteins, catalysts and enzymes
6.1 Protein molecules are made up of long chains of amino acids.
6.2 Enzymes are proteins. The amino acid chains are folded to form the active site.
6.3 Proteins act as structural components of tissues, as hormones, as antibodies and as catalysts.
6.4 Catalysts increase the rate of chemical reactions without changing themselves. Enzymes are biological catalysts.
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