Agents of socialisation

Joy Lewry
Mind Map by Joy Lewry, updated more than 1 year ago
Joy Lewry
Created by Joy Lewry over 4 years ago



Resource summary

Agents of socialisation
  1. Family
    1. Rewards
      1. Rewarding for good grades through an award of money from parents.
        1. Encourages good behaviour and would make them value achievements more.
      2. Sanctions
        1. If a child is impolite, they may be put on the naughty step or disciplined in some other way.
          1. Enforces valuing manners and courteousness.
        2. Role models/immitation
          1. Likely to adopt mannerisms from parents, such as the way they walk and talk.
            1. Effects behaviours i.e. the way a child walks and talks.
          2. Manipulation
            1. Mothers manipulate girls into being submissive and dependant, and boys into being active and independent.
              1. Changes children's behaviour, girls are more likely to accept a life of housekeeping.
            2. Verbal appelation
              1. By the use of masculine nicknames like 'little monster' for boys and alternatively for little girls the name 'princess'.
                1. Behaviour becomes more masculine or feminine.
              2. Canalisation
                1. Girls and boys are channelled into appropriate gendered activities, by playing with certain toys or playing certain sports. As said and defined by Ann Oakley.
                  1. Behaviours change to what they associate with being more feminine or masculine roles.
                2. Informal social control
                  1. Households generally have house rules, that you should not transgress, like set curfews.
                    1. This makes children value authority and their behaviour adapts to the rules.
                3. Education
                  1. Canalisation
                    1. Children may study different subjects or play with certain types of toys based on their genders.
                      1. Boys may want to be a superhero, doctor or builder when they grow up, whilst girls may want to work with animals, be a mum or a Nurse when they grow up.
                    2. Role models/immitation
                      1. Social science teachers are more likely to be female, whereas natural science teachers are more likely to be male.
                        1. Boys are then more likely to study natural sciences and excel in these areas, whereas girls are more likely to choose to study as social science and excel in this area.
                      2. Sanctions
                        1. Detentions for not being punctual.
                          1. In order to avoid punishments like this again, children may reflect on their behaviour and become punctual.
                        2. Rewards
                          1. For good behaviour, children may get 'golden time', a time for play.
                            1. Encourages good behaviour to please the teacher and get more 'golden time'.
                          2. Informal social control
                            1. As said by Althusser in relation to the hidden curriculum, children are taught that it is acceptable to live in an unequal society.
                              1. Norm of tolerating unfairness and respecting authority are then installed.
                            2. Formal social control
                              1. Children must attend school from the age of 5, and cannot take holiday during term time without being fined.
                                1. Children develop the norm of school life and that term time is the only holiday time they can take.
                            3. Peers
                              1. Role models
                                1. May look up to another, more popular, member of the social group, may begin to smoke because it is something they also do.
                                  1. Effects an individuals behaviour, as their social norms and values are adapted.
                                2. Sanctions
                                  1. May phase people out the group if they have a disagreement or transgress the boundaries of the group.
                                    1. Effects an individuals behaviour because they feel the need to submit to the groups expectations and so become more submissive.
                                  2. Informal social control
                                    1. Peer pressure, as defined by Harris, it can effect a child's identity more than a family can influence a child's identity.
                                      1. Influences behaviour through socialising people into shared norms and values of the group.
                                  3. Work
                                    1. Formal social control
                                      1. Work sign workers into contracts which may be legally binding, with clauses like the Scott v Avery clause which reduces workers choice and freedom.
                                        1. Charlesworth said that the working class experience lives of negativity with over exposure to the media.
                                          1. effects perception of social norms and values, value prime time entertainment and family, it is a norm to be oppressed.
                                      2. Sanctions
                                        1. If behaviour transgressed rules of conduct, may be put on disciplinary.
                                          1. indicates that their behaviour will not be accepted, encourages a change in behaviour.
                                        2. Rewards
                                          1. For good work and behaviour that has benefited the company, may receive a promotion or a pay rise.
                                            1. change in social behaviour as they mould to be a good worker with encouragement.
                                          2. Role models/immitation
                                            1. May look up to those of higher ranks in the workplace. From those the person may adopt norms and values.
                                              1. Changes their norms and values, begin to behave like others.
                                          3. Religion
                                            1. Sanctions
                                              1. If you don't follow their values you may be exiled by the Catholic church, such as homosexuality.
                                                1. Sets an example that people should not follow, through shaming, then people begin to adopt their values.
                                              2. Informal social control
                                                1. The 7 deadly sins in the bible are essentially boundaries and rules to act as guidance for people.
                                                  1. People evaluate their behaviour to avoid transgressing boundaries.
                                                2. Role models/immitation
                                                  1. Nuns and priests etc act as gendered role models for people who follow the christian church.
                                                    1. influences values and behaviour, abstinence and marriage may become more valued to the person.
                                                  2. Canalisation
                                                    1. Islam is argued to be a good moral guide for Muslim girls, which is from the sociologist Butler.
                                                      1. Girls adapt their behaviour to follow the moral guide of Islam.
                                                  3. Media
                                                    1. Sanctions
                                                      1. May shame members of both genders for anything that isn't the perfect body image. magazines like 'Gossip' and 'OK' are renowned for their front page body shaming.
                                                        1. By those who see celebrities as role models, will encourage them to go to the gym, eat healthier or may actually cause unhealthy eating habits. this is considered to be their social behaviour.
                                                        2. Those who transgress social norms and political views, like the Daily Mail's political views, may feature embarrassingly as a story within the paper.
                                                          1. Shows some people that this is considered unacceptable behaviour, encourages conformity.
                                                        3. Role models/immitation
                                                          1. Bandura said that exposure to violence in the media effects children's development, they are more likely to commit crimes and develop violent behaviour.
                                                            1. Influences behaviour, as they become more violent.
                                                          2. Manipulation
                                                            1. Naomi Wolfe said that the idea of a perfect body image is a means to manipulate women.
                                                              1. Effects behaviour, people become more obsessive and can be argued to encourage eating disorders.
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