1 Ethnic groups are groups within a population regarded by themselves
or others as culturally distinctive; they usually see themsleves as
having a common origin. Ethnicity may be linked to religion, nationality
& other aspects of culturesuch as language & lifestyle.
2 Ethnic differences in achievement
2.1 In 2004 Chinese pupils had the
highest proportion achieving GCSE
grades A* - C (79% girls &70% boys).
2.2 Indian pupils 72% girls & 62%
boys gained GCSE grades A* - C
2.3 Lowest level of attainment were
among African-Caribbean pupils,
(44% of girls & 27% of boys).
2.4 In 2004, 31% of Chinese, 25% of Indians,
17% of White British people & 13% of
black African Caribbean people had
3 Changes over time
3.1 1992 - White British pupils more than
twice as likely as Bangladeshis to
achieve 5+ GCSEs at grades A* - C.
3.1.1 By 2006 there was only
1% point difference
3.2 By 2001-2, all minority groups had higher
participation rates in higher education than
White British people in England
3.3 Minority groups are stil less likely to go to the more
prestigious unis &, apart from Chineses & Indians,
are less likely to attain a high-grade degree.
4 Social class, ethnicity & achievement
4.1 Differences in achievement are partly
the result of social class differences.
4.2 Most minority ethnic groups are more likely to
have WC jobs than white British people.
4.3 Since class has a major impact on levels of educational
achievement, this partly explains underachievement by
members of some minority ethnic groups.
4.4 Research by Modood (2004) found that class differences in
achievement at GCSE were greatest among white British & lower
among minority ethnic groups.
4.4.1 Modood argues that some ethnic minority
pupils have higher levels of culture capital,
despite often being from a WC background.
188.8.131.52 Cultural capital: non-material assets such
as classical knowledge & lifestyle, which
are valued by society & can be helpful in
achieving educational success.
184.108.40.206 For instance, many Indians & East African Asians originate from WC
backgrounds though have MC jobs. Parents may place high value on educational
success & have KN & understanding of education to help their children suceed.
5 Cultural factors, ethnicity & achievement
5.1 Differences in educational achievements could be a result
of cultural factors such as eductional parent's qualifications
& parental KN of, & interest in, the education system.
5.2 Strand - ethncity & achievement
in secondary education
5.2.1 Strand (2007) compared progress of Indian,
African-Caribbean & white British pupil's in
the 1st 4 years of secondary school.
220.127.116.11 Strand found Indian children made more
progress than white British children but
African Caribbean pupils fell further behind.
18.104.22.168.1 Success of Indian children was due to both
cultural & material factors such as: high
aspirations & dedication to hw, low levels of
trauncy & exclusion, good resource provision
22.214.171.124.2 African Caribbean pupils were held back mainly by material
factors such as: high levels of poverty, living in poor
accommodation, attending schools in deprived areas.
6 Family life, masculinity & underachievement
6.1 Tony Sewell (1997) claims factors outside
school explain the low achievement of
many African Caribbean boys.
6.1.1 He argues that: a high proportion of boys are
raised in lone-parent families heded by women,
they therefore lack a positive adult male role
model, making them vulnerable to peer pressure.
6.1.2 They are more likely to be drawn into
gangs, which emphasize masculinity, gang
culture compensates for sense of rejection
by fathers & the experience of racism.
6.1.3 Some African Caribbean make little
effort & form an anti-school culture or
reject school in favour of street culture.
6.1.4 Criticized for blaming black culture
for educational failure, when the rel
cause lies in racism in the education
system, or society as a whole.