Ethnicity & Educational Achievement

n.n.princess
Mind Map by n.n.princess, updated more than 1 year ago
n.n.princess
Created by n.n.princess about 7 years ago
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Sociology Mind Map on Ethnicity & Educational Achievement, created by n.n.princess on 06/05/2013.
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Ethnicity & Educational Achievement
1 Ethnic groups are groups within a population regarded by themselves or others as culturally distinctive; they usually see themsleves as having a common origin. Ethnicity may be linked to religion, nationality & other aspects of culturesuch as language & lifestyle.
2 Ethnic differences in achievement
2.1 In 2004 Chinese pupils had the highest proportion achieving GCSE grades A* - C (79% girls &70% boys).
2.2 Indian pupils 72% girls & 62% boys gained GCSE grades A* - C
2.3 Lowest level of attainment were among African-Caribbean pupils, (44% of girls & 27% of boys).
2.4 In 2004, 31% of Chinese, 25% of Indians, 17% of White British people & 13% of black African Caribbean people had degrees.
3 Changes over time
3.1 1992 - White British pupils more than twice as likely as Bangladeshis to achieve 5+ GCSEs at grades A* - C.
3.1.1 By 2006 there was only 1% point difference betweeen them.
3.2 By 2001-2, all minority groups had higher participation rates in higher education than White British people in England
3.3 Minority groups are stil less likely to go to the more prestigious unis &, apart from Chineses & Indians, are less likely to attain a high-grade degree.
4 Social class, ethnicity & achievement
4.1 Differences in achievement are partly the result of social class differences.
4.2 Most minority ethnic groups are more likely to have WC jobs than white British people.
4.3 Since class has a major impact on levels of educational achievement, this partly explains underachievement by members of some minority ethnic groups.
4.4 Research by Modood (2004) found that class differences in achievement at GCSE were greatest among white British & lower among minority ethnic groups.
4.4.1 Modood argues that some ethnic minority pupils have higher levels of culture capital, despite often being from a WC background.
4.4.1.1 Cultural capital: non-material assets such as classical knowledge & lifestyle, which are valued by society & can be helpful in achieving educational success.
4.4.1.2 For instance, many Indians & East African Asians originate from WC backgrounds though have MC jobs. Parents may place high value on educational success & have KN & understanding of education to help their children suceed.
5 Cultural factors, ethnicity & achievement
5.1 Differences in educational achievements could be a result of cultural factors such as eductional parent's qualifications & parental KN of, & interest in, the education system.
5.2 Strand - ethncity & achievement in secondary education
5.2.1 Strand (2007) compared progress of Indian, African-Caribbean & white British pupil's in the 1st 4 years of secondary school.
5.2.1.1 Strand found Indian children made more progress than white British children but African Caribbean pupils fell further behind.
5.2.1.1.1 Success of Indian children was due to both cultural & material factors such as: high aspirations & dedication to hw, low levels of trauncy & exclusion, good resource provision at home.
5.2.1.1.2 African Caribbean pupils were held back mainly by material factors such as: high levels of poverty, living in poor accommodation, attending schools in deprived areas.
6 Family life, masculinity & underachievement
6.1 Tony Sewell (1997) claims factors outside school explain the low achievement of many African Caribbean boys.
6.1.1 He argues that: a high proportion of boys are raised in lone-parent families heded by women, they therefore lack a positive adult male role model, making them vulnerable to peer pressure.
6.1.2 They are more likely to be drawn into gangs, which emphasize masculinity, gang culture compensates for sense of rejection by fathers & the experience of racism.
6.1.3 Some African Caribbean make little effort & form an anti-school culture or reject school in favour of street culture.
6.1.4 Criticized for blaming black culture for educational failure, when the rel cause lies in racism in the education system, or society as a whole.
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