Participant as an Individual

elisabeth.malt97
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

AQA pe topic 1 first 5 sub sections

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elisabeth.malt97
Created by elisabeth.malt97 over 5 years ago
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Participant as an Individual
1 Age
1.1 Strength decreases as we get older but much younger people will not reach maximum strength until they are fully grown --> this is why weight training is not recommended
1.2 oxygen capacity decreases with age as the heart becomes less efficient
1.3 Skills levels can improve with age and experience as well as improving as we grow and get stronger
1.4 the older you get, the longer it takes to recover form injuries, there is more of a chance of suffering from disorders or diseases as there is a gradual build up of wear and tear on the body
1.5 Age divisions: this is the most basic way to introduce competitiveness into a sport
1.5.1 school sport is always organised into age groups
1.5.2 major sports competitions, championships and leagues too are split into age divisions, however may allow flexibility e.g Under 14s Under 16s-->allows them to play older competitors
1.5.3 age doesn't always affect people in exactly the same way as some young people may physically mature quicker and be able to cope with older competitors
1.5.3.1 not all contact sports allow this though as there is possible dangers to physical mismatch
2 Disability
2.1 can be considered in one of 4 categories
2.1.1 Physical
2.1.2 Mental
2.1.3 Permanent
2.1.4 Temporary
2.2 Sporting adaptations
2.2.1 paralympics held every 4 years after the olympic games
2.2.2 adapted sports such as wheelchair basketball where the hoop height is the same but some of the rules are different
2.2.3 adapted equipment such as that in football which is used by the blind and visually impaired, the ball has ball bearings in small compartments within the ball so that it can be heard and the movement can be tracked
2.2.4 disability classifications apply for all the activities relating to their physical demand
2.2.4.1 e.g. F for field and T for track
2.2.4.2 numbers to identify the particular disability to make it fair
2.3 Facilities
2.3.1 Access: doors and doorways have to be wide enough to allow wheelchair access and ramps must be provided
2.3.2 Parking: disabled bays must be marked and made available
2.3.3 Provision: lifts must allow access to upper floors, disabled toilets must be provided, and there should be specific activities clubs or classes that are particulary suited to the disabled
3 Gender
3.1 physical differences
3.1.1 body shape, size and physique are generally different in men and women
3.1.1.1 women tend to be smaller overall, have a flatter broader pelvis(childbirth), smaller lungs and heart, higher percentage of fat
3.1.1.1.1 due to smaller lungs and heart they also have a lower oxygen carrying capacity than males
3.1.2 Muscle strength and power can vary
3.1.2.1 women have less total muscle mass than men - up to 40-50%
3.1.2.2 women have less muscle mass than men so tend to be more flexible
3.1.3 rates of maturity differ - girls tend to mature a lot faster than boys
3.1.3.1 this is the reason why competition between younger males and females can be fair but from the age of 11 upwards males start to overtake in terms of height and strength so sports tend to become single sex after this stage
3.1.4 females menstruate and suffer from hormonal imbalance can disadvantage females if they are participating during their period
3.2 perceived differences
3.2.1 discrimination has often meant women are seen as the 'weaker sex' and not allowed the same opportunities as men
3.2.1.1 not allowed to compete in distances greater than 800m in olympics until 1960 - the 1500 m was added in 1972 and the 10000 in 1988
3.2.1.2 many sports are seen as female and only recently has a football seen a surge in female players to make it the fastest growing sport
3.2.1.2.1 some women may find that their religion forbids them to take part fully as they have to remain covered as a requirement of their faith and this can restrict their opportunities to participate
4 Physique
4.1 Endomorph
4.1.1 roughly pear shaped with
4.1.2 wide hips wide shoulders
4.1.3 tendency to gain weight
4.1.4 short legs in relation to their body
4.1.5 would find it hard to compete in distance running
4.1.6 more like a sumo wrestler
4.2 Ectomorph
4.2.1 predominately people who are tall
4.2.2 slender and thin
4.2.3 narrow shoulder and hips
4.2.4 little muscle and body fat
4.2.5 not suited to power and strength sports
4.2.6 suited to endurance events eg marathon running and gymnastics
4.3 Mesomorph
4.3.1 broad wide shoulders
4.3.2 muscular arms and legs
4.3.3 narrow hips
4.3.4 little body fat
4.3.5 excels in strength, agility and speed sports
4.3.6 particularly suited to swimming events
5 environment
5.1 weather
5.1.1 may have no control over
5.1.2 professional performer may be able to afford to travel to a country where the weather is suitable for their sport
5.1.3 affects both training and competing separately
5.2 training
5.2.1 if you were a marathon runner you would need to carry out distance runs as part of your training
5.2.1.1 might not be able to do so if theres snow or ice
5.2.2 tennis player may not have access to indoors court
5.2.2.1 have to go outside where it may be wet - not able to compete in wet icy weather
5.3 competing
5.3.1 many activities stop if the weather is poor
5.3.2 includes being too hot, too cold, too wet, too dry, too foggy, too windy or during thunderstorms
5.4 pollution
5.4.1 this has serious health risks for anyone taking exercise in these conditions
5.4.2 if pollution levels are high then performing outside will not be possible so training would be restricted to indoors
5.4.2.1 where there would be air conditioning or a form of climate control
5.5 altitude
5.5.1 height of an area above sea level
5.5.2 training and performing at high altitude can be a real benefit
5.5.3 living and training at high altitude can also be a real benefit for someone if they take part endurance events
5.6 humidity
5.6.1 the amount of water vapour in the air
5.6.2 humidity combined with heat makes it very difficult for performers to keep their bodies cool enough to avoid dehydration
5.7 terrain
5.7.1 the landscape you require may be crucial to your sport
5.7.2 climbers need challenge to climb and cyclists might need flat ground
5.7.3 surfers need water

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