Tectonic hazards

Poppy Ash
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

Geography mind map on tectonic hazards, including case studies of hurricanes and earthquakes.

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Poppy Ash
Created by Poppy Ash over 5 years ago
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Tectonic hazards
1 STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH
1.1 Inner core = solid, made of iron
1.2 Outer core = liquid iron
1.3 Mantle = high temperature, consistency of jam
1.4 Crust = Outer layer separated into plates. Continental and oceanic crust
1.4.1 Continental crust = thick, less dense than oceanic. Between 25-90km thick. Mainly granite.
1.4.2 Oceanic crust = quite thick, made from heavier rock than continental, between 5-10km thick. Made from basalt. Made from younger rocks as constantly destroyed and replaced.
2 MONTSERRAT
2.1 LEDC
2.2 About volcano
2.2.1 Caribbean Sea
2.2.2 Soufriere hills
2.2.3 Destructive plate boundary
2.2.4 Eruption in 1995
2.2.4.1 2,000 people left island in first day
2.2.4.2 Later 9000 left leaving 8000 people
2.2.5 2002, started up again. 2000m high clouds in 'safe area'
2.3 Effects
2.3.1 19 killed
2.3.2 Hundreds homeless
2.3.3 Effects on business, people moving away.
2.3.4 Crops damaged
2.4 Responses
2.4.1 Exclusion zone for volcano moved further North
2.4.2 Charities and British Government gave aid to people leaving island
2.4.3 People rebuilt homes in North of the island
2.4.4 USA sent troops for evacuation
2.4.5 Charities like Red Cross set up temporary schools
2.4.6 More monitoring of volcano by scientists
2.4.7 Vegetation regrew in some areas
3 CHRISTCHURCH
3.1 About
3.1.1 New Zealand
3.1.2 Destructive Plate Boundary
3.1.2.1 Pacific plate sinking under Indo-Australian plate
3.1.3 2010 = magnitude of 7.1
3.1.4 2011 = magnitude of 6.3
3.2 Effects of 2011
3.2.1 181 killed by falling buildings
3.2.2 Several thousand injured
3.2.3 Damage to buildings, roads, landscape
3.2.4 80% city without power
3.2.5 People crushed by buildings
3.2.6 163 schools closed for 3 weeks
3.2.7 11 schools seriously damaged
3.3 Responses of 2011
3.3.1 450 mobile homes set up around Christchurch
3.3.2 $400 billion in repairs
3.3.3 Memorial service held for dead
3.3.4 Fundraising and charity events to raise money to rebuild homes
4 HURRICANE KATRINA
4.1 About
4.1.1 States affected - Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi
4.1.2 August 2005
4.1.3 Highest category: 5
4.1.4 America
4.2 Effects
4.2.1 Hit New Orleans and broke levees
4.2.2 Over 10,000 homeless
4.2.3 Oil production in Gulf of Mexico stopped
4.2.4 Erosion on beaches, habitats and breeding grounds affected, e.g. in turtles
4.2.5 Thousands of jobs lost
4.2.6 1,836 killed in hurricane
4.2.7 Over 3 million people without electricity
4.2.8 80% New Orleans under water
4.2.9 Storm surges up to 20ft in height
4.2.10 Over 26,000 went to Superdome which had resources for 10,000
4.2.11 Lack of clean water for survivors - contamination
4.3 Responses
4.3.1 Popular tourist areas recovered
4.3.2 $50billion aid given by government to rebuild city
4.3.3 Poorer neighbourhoods still not recovered
4.3.4 Building rebuilt
4.3.5 Area cleaned up - dead bodies removed from streets
4.4 MEDC
5 CYCLONE NARGIS
5.1 About
5.1.1 May 2008
5.1.2 Affected Burma, SW of Bangladesh
5.1.3 Category 4
5.2 LEDC
5.3 Effects
5.3.1 Lack of food + water for survivors
5.3.2 Children orphaned
5.3.3 Many died from spread of disease
5.3.4 Lots of damage to buildings. Many homeless.
5.3.5 $10 billion damage
5.3.6 Majority of people worked in flooded rice fields= lost harvest and income
5.3.7 Storm surge of 7.6km
5.3.8 Heavy rainfall
5.3.9 Farmland, fisheries, livestock destroyed
5.4 Responses
5.4.1 Operation USA helped to provide medicine
5.4.2 Money given to rebuild livelihoods
5.4.3 Health centres and schools reconstructed
5.4.4 Over 4,000 people from 136 villages trained in community-based disaster risk management
5.4.5 Better communication - telephone lines installed, etc.
5.4.6 Improved services in some areas - water, hygiene, disease awareness, etc.
5.4.7 7,444 people and their families have benefited from “cash-for-work” opportunities.