sterling-l
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Developmental Mind Map on NATURE, created by sterling-l on 05/06/2013.

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sterling-l
Created by sterling-l over 6 years ago
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NATURE
1 NURTURE
1.1 Environmental shaping of behaviour

Annotations:

  • "There is no such thing as an inheritance of capacity, talent, temperament and behavioural characteristics." Watson 1925
1.1.1 INTERACTION

Annotations:

  • Contemporary researchers nw believe attributes such as intelligence, temperament & personality are the result of an interaction between biological predisposition & environmental forces.
  • "Biology + environment are as inseparable as conjoined twins who share a common heart." Halpern 1997
1.1.1.1 Timing of Experience
1.1.1.1.1 Internal models of experience interacts with maturation

Annotations:

  • eg: critical periods for attachment formation (Bowlby 1969).
1.1.1.2 Behaviour Genetics influence on Social Systems
1.1.1.2.1 Individual's genetic heritage may affect their environment & behaviour shown towards them.

Annotations:

  • eg: born with high IQ = more stimulating environment
1.1.1.3 Vulnerability & Resilience
1.1.1.3.1 Same environment can have different outcomes on different children due to different inherited characteristics

Annotations:

  • eg: some children in disadvantaged circumstances show no adverse effects.
1.1.1.3.2 Some characteristics act as vulnerabilities + others protective factors

Annotations:

  • eg; high IQ = protective factor Irritable = vulnerability
1.1.1.4 Psychoanalytic theory

Annotations:

  • Originated with Freud's Psychosexual Theory. Uncnscious motives usually repressed.
1.1.1.4.1 Inborn instincts
1.1.1.4.2 Parental child rearing practices
1.1.1.5 Infants perception is limited + both maturational processes + experience contribute to perceptual awareness

Annotations:

  • Smith + Katz 1996
1.2 Internal Models of Experience
1.2.1 Create schemes to interpret events based on previous experiences
1.2.2 Universal process that is unique to each individual
1.3 Social Systems

Annotations:

  • eg: Family, community, culture
1.3.1 how they interact to affect development.
1.4 Learning Theory

Annotations:

  • Behaviourism Watson believes children are tabula rasa
  • Skinner belives that development is a reflection of operant conditioning as children are passively shaped by reinforcers & punishments.
1.4.1 Children are molded by their environments

Annotations:

  • Bandura Bobo Doll - modelling
1.4.2 Observational learning
1.5 Empiricist philosophers believed that infants = tabula rasa who learns to interpret sensations.
2 Inborn developmental plan

Annotations:

  • eg; milestones, norms
  • "Differences among people are due to differences in germ cells with which they were born." Wiggam 1923.
2.1
3 Maturation
3.1 Genetically programmed, sequential patterns of change

Annotations:

  • eg: walking, talking
3.2 Universal
3.3 Immune to environment influence
4 Developmental Constraints
4.1 Response patterns that constrain possible developmental pathways

Annotations:

  • eg: sucking, tracking objects
4.2 Universal
4.3 Inbuilt/pre-wired
5 Behavioural Genetics
5.1 Genetics contribute to inter-individual behavioural differences

Annotations:

  • eg; intelligence, depression, sociability
5.2 Universal
6 Evolutionary Theory
6.1 Born with biologically programmed behaviours that promote adaptive developments

Annotations:

  • Evolved through natural selection. Certain adaptive characteristics have sensitive periods.
6.2 Appropriate environment is necessary for successful adaption
7 Nativist philosophers believed that basic perceptual abilities are innate.

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