The Nature of Matter

Billy White
Mind Map by Billy White, updated more than 1 year ago
Billy White
Created by Billy White about 6 years ago
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Nov. 10th, 2015

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The Nature of Matter
  1. Atoms

    Annotations:

    • The atom is the simplest unit of matter. Beyond the atom, nothing smaller unit can be determined.
    1. Protons

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      • The proton is a subatomic particle which has a positive charge; like the neutron, the proton is a nucleon.
      1. Neutrons

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        • The neutron is a subatomic particle with no net charge whatsoever; like the proton, the neutron is a nucleon.
        1. Electrons

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          • The Electron is a subatomic particle with a negative charge. It is thought to be elementary due to its lack of known structure.
        2. Chemical Compounds

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          • A chemical compound results from the combining of two elements. 
          • When elements combine, forming a compound, they are rid of their original properties. One example of this is table salt. Sodium is an extremely reactive alkali metal that ignites on contact with water. Chlorine is a green poisonous gas. Combine the two, however, and they become salt, or Sodium Chloride. To summarize: The physical and chemical properties of a compound are different from its component elements.
          1. Physical and Chemical Qualities

            Annotations:

            • As I stated before, the physical and chemical properties of the component elements of a compound are completely changed, and new properties are born.
            1. Component Elements

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              • The component elements of a compound are the elements from which said compound is made.
            2. Isotopes

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              • Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons.
              • Isotopes have the same number of protons, and the same atomic number. However, they have different amounts of neutrons, and therefore may be different in atomic weight. Also, isotopes may differ based on their stability. One may be radioactive, and one may be stable.
              1. Radioactive Isotopes

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                • Isotopes with an unstable nucleus. 
              2. Elements

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                • An element is a substance which is made up of the same amount of electrons.
                1. ELement Types
                  1. Alkali Metals

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                    • Common Properties  - Lower density than other metals  - One loosely bound valence electon   -  Largest atomic radii in their period  - Low ionization energies  - Low electronegatives
                    1. Alkaline Earth

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                      • Common Properties - Two electrons in outer shell - Low electron affinities - Low electron negatives - Readily form divalent cations
                      1. Transition Metals

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                        • Common Properties   - Low Ionization energies  - Postitive oxidation states  - Very hard  - High melting and boiling points  - High electrical conductivity  
                        1. Basic Metals

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                          • Common Properties  - Shiny, metallic appearance  - High meltiing points  - High densities  - Large atomic radii  - Low ionization energy  - Low electronegatives
                          1. Semi Metals

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                            • Common Properties    - Electonegativities between those of metals and non-metals  - Ionization energies between those of metals and non-metals  - Often make good semi-conductors
                            1. Non Metals

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                              • Common Properties  - High ionization energy - High Electronegatives
                              1. Halogen

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                                • Common Properties  - High electronegatives  - Seven valence electrons  - Very reactive
                                1. Noble Gasses

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                                  • Common Properties  - Fairly non-reactive  - Low electronegatives  - Complete valence shell  - Low boiling points   - High Ionization energies
                                  1. Lanthanides

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                                    • Common Properties  - Silvery-white metals that tarnish when exposed to air, releasing their oxides  - Relatively soft metals  - High melting and boiling points  - Very reactive
                                    1. Actinides

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                                      • Common Propertie   - All are radioactive  - Actinides are highly electropositive  - Metals tarnish when exposed to air  - Actinides combine directly with most non-metals
                                  2. Chemical Bonds

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                                    • The process by which atoms or ions are bound within a molecule or a crystal.
                                    1. Covalent Bond

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                                      • The chemical bond that forms when electrons are shared.
                                      1. Ionic Bond

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                                        • the electrical attraction between two oppositely charged ataom or groups of atoms alled ions. 
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