issues surrounding the classification and diagnosis of OCD (validity)


Mind Map on issues surrounding the classification and diagnosis of OCD (validity), created by slbuckley5 on 04/08/2014.
Mind Map by slbuckley5, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by slbuckley5 almost 9 years ago

Resource summary

issues surrounding the classification and diagnosis of OCD (validity)
  1. Validity of the diagnosis
    1. A valid diagnosis should be representative of what the patient it suffering from and should lead to an effective treatment
      1. it may be difficult to give a valid diagnosis of OCD because...
        1. OCD might be 'normal'
          1. there are different types of OCD
            1. OCD is often comorbid (combined) with other disorders
              1. Some researchers suggest OCD should not be classed as an anxiety disorder
            2. OCD might be 'normal'
              1. 75% of adults have unwanted thoughts and mild checking behaviour. When OCD becomes so overwhelming it interferes with everyday life then can be seen as 'abnormal'
                1. a valid diagnosis of OCD requires evidence of persistence and dysfunction otherwise danger of unnecessarily medicating normal behaviour
                  1. if normal behaviour becomes a diagnosable disorder people may receive treatment that they don't need e.g. drugs for people who don't need them could lead to negative side effects. Label- self fulfilling prophecy
                    1. the current criteria for OCD says obsessions and compulsions have to cause distress for a diagnosis to be made. If someone is distress they clearly need help and therefore a reason to stay with this current diagnostic criteria
                    2. there are different types of OCD
                      1. Some psychologists believe there is more than one disorder
                        1. Jakes (1996) suggests there are sub groups of patients who differ in compulsions e.g. some have more checking rituals. Should not ignore sub groups as they made need different treatments
                          1. However, Rasmussen and Eisen (1991) found certain factors common in all cases: overwhelming anxiety, fear of something terrible happening and belief compulsion provides relief from obsession
                          2. OCD is often comorbid with other disorders
                            1. difficult to give a valid diagnosis because OCD occurs with other disorders. Studies suggest 67% of OCD sufferers also have depression. Therefore sometimes difficult to separate two disorders
                              1. Lennkh et al found that of 66 females who met the criteria for anorexia or bulimia, 7 had current OCD while 5 had a history of OCD. As well patients with comorbid OCD had significantly higher lifetime prevalence of bipolar, phobias and somatoform disorders.
                                1. it is important for clinicans to identify which disorder occurred first e.g. if OCD occurs as a symptom of an eating disorder then no point treating OCD until treated eating disorder
                              2. maybe OCD should not be classed as an anxiety disorder
                                1. OCD is currently classes as an anxiety disorder although some researchers suggest that this is not valid as there are distinctive differences between OCD and other anxiety disorders
                                  1. The obsessive thoughts of OCD are often irrational and very different to the real life worries of generalised anxiety.
                                    1. People with Phobias generally only show concern when in the presence of the phobic stimuli whereas OCD sufferers show persistant and excessive thoughts and feared stimuli, even in its absence.
                                    2. it might be more valid to place OCD alongside OCD spectrum disorders such as Tourette's, hypochondria and impulse control disorders like kleptomania
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