G4 - sustainabilty - water case studies

Fionn Gilhooley
Mind Map by Fionn Gilhooley, updated more than 1 year ago
Fionn Gilhooley
Created by Fionn Gilhooley almost 6 years ago
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Mind Map on G4 - sustainabilty - water case studies, created by Fionn Gilhooley on 04/10/2014.

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G4 - sustainabilty - water case studies
1 Desalination case studies
1.1 Victorias Desalination Plant (Austrailia)
1.1.1 Capable of providing 1/3 of melbournes water needs
1.1.2 Built in 2009 after 13years of drought in Southeast Austrailia
1.1.3 water resourvoirs fell to 26%
1.1.4 objective was to provide a rainfall independent source of drinking water
1.1.5 25000 jobs were created
1.1.6 8km of pipeline to transport water to Melbourne
1.1.7 All energy comes from a renewable energy provider
1.1.8 450,000m3 of drinking water produced daily
1.1.9 largest green roof in Southern hemisphere (26,000m2)
1.1.9.1 millions of native trees and shrub planted there
1.1.10 Costs
1.1.10.1 eyesore on coastline
1.1.10.2 Pollution from shipping equipment to the site
1.1.10.3 increase in greenhouse gas emmisions
1.1.10.4 requires lots of energy to operate
1.1.11 Benefits
1.1.11.1 created 25000 jobs
1.1.11.2 all energy sourced from renewable energy sources
1.1.11.3 green roof
1.1.11.4 450,000m3 of drinking water produced daily
1.1.11.5 produce 150l of water per year
1.1.11.6 improve fish habitatt
1.1.11.7 each day can supplyup to 500million litres of water
1.1.11.7.1 1/3 of sydneys daily needs
2 reservoirs
2.1 China, Three Gorges Dam
2.1.1 fuly operational in 2001
2.1.2 worlds largest dam
2.1.3 constructed becase...
2.1.3.1 reduce flooding down stream
2.1.3.2 increase water supply
2.1.3.3 increase energy supply (HEP)
2.1.3.4 improve navigation
2.1.4 social impact
2.1.4.1 flood control in middle and lower reaches
2.1.4.1.1 saves lives and livelihood
2.1.4.2 loss of farmland
2.1.4.3 results in urban migration
2.1.4.4 relocation of people
2.1.5 economic impact
2.1.5.1 will create jobs and promote economic growth in the Valley
2.1.5.2 hydropower sale will fund project cost
2.1.5.3 navigation improvements enable 5000 vessels to reach Chongqung
2.1.6 environmental impact
2.1.6.1 reduced air pollution as hydropower will reduce thermal
2.1.6.2 reduced saltation in lakes and middle reaches
2.1.6.3 increased pollution from sewage and industrial effluent
2.1.6.4 land slips in resouvior area
2.1.6.5 large dams can cause earthquakes
3 water resources and conflicts
3.1 Conflicts between neighbouring countries can occur if water supplies are scarce and drainage basins cut across national boundaries.
3.2 . In Africa for example, 90% of all surface water is found in ‘transboundary basins’
3.3 The Nile River Basin
3.3.1 The Nile’s tributaries, lakes, and rivers collect and disperse water in nine African countries before it reaches the Mediterranean Sea.
3.3.2 The Egyptians have used military force to ensure their control over the headwaters of the Nile, because the country has no other water source.
3.3.3 The Nile River for centuries has been the source of sustaining human life in Egypt and Sudan.
3.3.4 The Nile is the longest river in the world, stretching for 4,130 miles.
3.3.5 Sudan, Ethiopia, and Uganda have constructed various river projects to increase their annual water withdrawals, affecting Egyptian control over the Nile
3.3.6 Rising populations, and the spread of the Sahara desert, have placed extra strain on what is available - increasing political tensions across the region
3.3.7 It is estimated that irrigation schemes would help 30-40% of the population - around 15 to 20 million people.
3.3.8 Egypt is reported to have said it would regard any attempt to alter the Nile status as an act of war.
4 sustainable water issue in California
4.1 June 07 record low rainfaill and human development creates 'perfect drought'
4.2 June 08 another year of drought
4.3 March 09 proclaim state of emergency
4.3.1 'Agriculture losses could reach $2.8b this year and cost 95,000 jobs'- State Water Director
4.4 hundreds of thousands acres of farm land will be left unplanted
4.5 worst case scenario 60-80 thousand jobs will be lost in other areas
4.6 increase in food prices
4.7 limit on the amount of water people have available
4.8 rain doesnt fall in the places it is needed
4.9 demand outstrips supply
4.10 have changed to growing more efficient crops
4.11 recycling water
4.12 transfering water to areas of deficit
4.13 lining crops with plastic sheeting to reduce run off
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