1.1 Ethnic groups share
common cultures, sense of
identity and a place of
2 Cultural Hybrid- The
mixing of more than
3.1 Arranged Marriages and
traditional gender roles
3.2 Anwar- The result of feeling excluded, Asians in Britain
see their families as a refuge. He found that Asian
families including Hindu, Muslim and Sikh emphasise
family loyalty,Izzat, duty, respect and religious
commitment. this might mean that for females there is less
freedom as liberated girls might be seen as
non-traditional and threatening.
3.3 Francis and Archer- In Chinese families education
was highly valued, with families stressing the
importance of educational success and often making
sacrifices so that their children can attend private
3.4 Dench- Studied Bangladeshi community in Tower
Hamlets in London's East End. Community and
family relationships were organised around the
extended family which remains strong.
3.5 Drury- 1/5 of the girls in her sample were secretly
dating boys. Others were going to pubs and
drinking alcohol behind their parent's backs. Such
practices can cause great anguish in Asian family
homes: 'I would love to have a boyfriend and I
would love to have a love marriage but the
consequences are too great. Gossip spreads and
you can lose everything'. A sikh girl quoted by
4.1 Jacobsen- Young Pakistanis see
Islam as a crucial part of there
identity as it affect their diet, dress
4.2 Food and drink- Muslims
wont drink alcohol or eat pork.
4.3 Catholics- abortion is
illegal in Ireland.
4.4 O’Beirne- religion offers some
function to people from ethnic
minorities as it helps bond
communities and provide shared
values in what might seem a
strange environment. His survey
shows that Muslims placed
religion in second place when
asked what was considered
important to their identity, that
black Christians placed it third
and white Christians placed it
5.1 High percentage
of Chinese and
Indian doctors in the NHS.
5.2 High Percentage of
Chinese and Indian working
in the food industry.
5.3 Less Asian women in work.
6.1 Coard- Ethnocentric curriculum
6.2 Mason- Many ethnic
minorities feel excluded in
6.3 Shain and Sewell- Pro and
6.4 Wright- Teachers were racist in schools
7.1 Gilroy- Afro-Caribbean's youths use music
as a source of their identity and maintaining
pride in the face of white capitalism.
7.2 Jhally- Ethnic minorities are
underrepresented in the media.
7.3 Media sorces not specifically aimed at
minority groups eg. radio channels,
magazines, newspapers etc