Depositional Environments

Lindsay Wennerström
Mind Map by Lindsay Wennerström, updated more than 1 year ago
Lindsay Wennerström
Created by Lindsay Wennerström over 4 years ago
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Description

Characterization of each depositional environment from continental to marine.

Resource summary

Depositional Environments
  1. Continental
    1. Alluvial Fan

      Annotations:

      • Poorly sorted conglomerate from debris flows and sandstone- and conglomerate-filled channels Types of rocks: Breccia, conglomerate, arkose, greywacke Physical Characteristics:  gravel to clay; angular; poorly sorted Chemical Characteristics: terrigenous; brown Inorganic Sed Structures: graded bedding; cross strat Biogenic Sed Structures: n/a Fossils: n/a
      1. Sand Dune

        Annotations:

        • Well sorted, well rounded sandstone with large scale cross-bedding
        1. Lacustrine

          Annotations:

          • Type of rocks: mudstone/shale, limestone, rock gypsum, rock salt Physical Characteristics: Silt, sand, clay; moderately to well sorted Chemical Characteristics:  Terrigenous; organic; carbonate evaporites Tan, brown, grey, green, black Inorganic Sed Structures: mudcracks; laminations; graded bedding; symmetrical ripple marks; raindrop imprints Biogenic Sed Structures: tracks, trails, burrows, stromatolites (rare) Fossils: Freshwater shells, bones, fish, land plants 
          1. Glacial

            Annotations:

            • Type of rock: Breccia, tillite Physical Characteristics: Clay to gravel, boulders; angular poorly sorted; polished and/or striated rocks Chemical Characteristics: Terrigenous Inorganic Sed Structures: Bedding Biogenic Sed Structures: n/a Fossils: n/a
            1. Outwash

              Annotations:

              • Much like braided stream deposits
              1. Moraines

                Annotations:

                • Unsorted, non-stratified deposits of sand and gravel
              2. Fluvial

                Annotations:

                • Shoestring geometry Point bar deposits Type of rocks: Conglomerate, breccia, sandstone, mudstone/shale Physical Characteristics: Gravel sized to clay; rounded to angular; poorly sorted to well sorted Chemical Characteristics: Terrigenous; brown, red Inorganic Sed Structures: Graded bedding, mud cracks, raindrop imprints, assymetric ripples, scour marks/flute casts, cross-strat Biogenic Sed Structures: Tracks, trails, burrows Fossils  Bones, land plants, freshwater shells
                1. Braided stream

                  Annotations:

                  • Mostly horizontally bedded conglomerate and cross-bedded sandstone; mudrocks not common
                  1. Meandering stream

                    Annotations:

                    • Mostly mudrocks deposited on floodplains; subordinate but distinctive lenticular sandstones deposited in point bars
                2. Transitional
                  1. Beach
                    1. Delta
                      1. Tidal Flat
                        1. Barrier Island
                          1. Lagoon
                          2. Marine
                            1. Continental Shelf
                              1. Submarine Fan
                                1. Organic Reef
                                  1. Deep Marine Basin
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