Mutation

Awangko Jamaluddin
Mind Map by Awangko Jamaluddin, updated more than 1 year ago
Awangko Jamaluddin
Created by Awangko Jamaluddin over 4 years ago
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Description

Changes in genes or chromosomes that may produce a new trait that can be inherited

Resource summary

Mutation
  1. Gene Mutation
    1. Duplication
      1. Occur when any number of nucleotides are copied and then inserted into original nucleotide sequence thus increase the size of normal DNA sequence.
      2. Inversion
        1. Reversal of a portion of a nucleotide sequence.
        2. Deletion
          1. Loss of a nucleotide from original base cause reducing the size of the DNA sequence.
          2. Insertion
            1. Insertion or deletion of base pair in DNA sequence cause frameshift mutation.
            2. Substitution
              1. Missense
                1. Code for a different amino acid that affect the activity of the protein.
                2. Silence
                  1. The substitution not change the amino acid ( no effect)
                  2. Nonsense
                    1. Cause stop codon and will alter the function of the gene product.
                    2. One nucleotide replaced with another nucleotide.
                  3. Chromosomal Mutation
                    1. Chromosomal Abberation
                      1. Translocation
                        1. Intrachromosomal
                          1. Within the chromosomes
                          2. Interchromosomal
                            1. Between chromosomes
                            2. Movement of part of a chromosome to another part
                            3. Deletion
                              1. Loss of chromosomal fragment that contain certain genes.
                              2. Inversion
                                1. Paracentric (Not include centromere)
                                  1. Pericentric (Include centromere)
                                    1. Change of direction of a chromosomal segment
                                    2. Duplication
                                      1. The doubling of one or several chromosomal fragments
                                    3. Alteration of Chromosomal Number
                                      1. Aneuploidy
                                        1. Extra or missing of one or more number of chromosome in normal set of individual (2n+1, 2n+2, 2n-1, 2n-2 etc)
                                        2. Euploidy
                                          1. Due to duplication of normal set of chromosome (3n, 4n, 5n etc)
                                      2. Changes in genes or chromosomes that may produce a new trait that can be inherited
                                        1. Causes
                                          1. Induced mutation
                                            1. Mutagen, substances cause a higher rate of mutation.
                                            2. Spontaneous mutation
                                              1. Low level natural mutagens
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