Cultural Explanations of Educational Achievement

Katie H
Mind Map by Katie H, updated more than 1 year ago
Katie H
Created by Katie H over 3 years ago


A level Sociology Mind Map on Cultural Explanations of Educational Achievement, created by Katie H on 02/16/2017.

Resource summary

Cultural Explanations of Educational Achievement
1 Parents attitudes
1.1 Douglas
1.1.1 Found that fifty years ago, the single most important factor in explaining educational success and failure was the degree of parental encouragement, expectation, interest and involvement in their children's education
1.2 Compared to working class parents, middle class parents take more interest in their child's progress (attend parents evenings), encourage their children as they grow older (exam options) and they are more likely to encourage their children into higher education
2 Parents levels of education
2.1 Middle class parents tend to understand the school system better than working-class parents
2.2 Lower-working-class parents may feel less confident in dealing with things such as parents evenings and exam options choice
2.3 Middle-class parents are likely to have a higher level of education themselves meaning they can aid their child with homework
2.4 Middle-class parents are able to better withstand disagreements with teachers (who are also middle-class) about the way their child is working and the way they are being treated therefore leading to greater achievement
3 Subcultural explanations
3.1 Different social classes have different norms, values and subcultures and these have an affect on the child's educational achievement
3.2 Hyman and Sugarman
3.2.1 Deferred gratification (Middle Class) and immediate gratification (Working Class)
4 Language codes
4.1 Bernstein
4.1.1 Restricted code (Working Class) and elaborated code (Middle Class)
4.2 The education system uses the elaborated code shared by the middle class. This means that the working class are disadvantaged as the pupils can not understand what is being presented to the in class and in textbooks and working class parents are also disadvantaged at events such as parents evenings
5 Cultural capital
5.1 Bourdieu (Marxist perspective)
5.2 Each social class possesses its own cultural framework or set of ideas that is known as a habitus. This habitus is picked up through socialisation
5.3 The dominant classes have the power to impose its own habitus on the education system therefore giving them an advantage
5.4 Upper and Middle classes are more successful in education because they possess more cultural capital and consequently feel more comfortable in the education system and are more familiar with what they have to do at school
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