A2 Geography- Superpower Geographies

Mind Map by sophielee0909, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by sophielee0909 about 6 years ago


Mind Map on A2 Geography- Superpower Geographies, created by sophielee0909 on 04/23/2014.

Resource summary

A2 Geography- Superpower Geographies
1 need to have global influence, economic power, political and cultural ideology projected on world. Economic, Cultural & Military power resulting in global political influence.
1.1 Emerging superpowers- growing influence e.g China- growing economy & military, less cultural influence. EU-considerable power, decisions and policies compromised as need to be agreed by 27 members.
1.2 Emerging powers-further from superpower status e.g Re-emerging Russia, India, Brazil, Gulf states. Powerful energy resources, but not global influence.
1.3 Regional powers- economic & political role within continents e.g South Africa & Japan
2 Maintaining power- Hard power(military) > Soft power(cultural)
2.1 Military presence & Force- Large air,naval & land forces, Nuclear weapons, Military bases in foreign countries giving geographical reach e.g USA present in every continent, military alliances e.g NATO, Diplomatic threats to use force if negotiation fails.
2.2 Aid & Trade- Favouring certain trade partners by reducing import tariffs, trade blocs & alliances, providing allies with technical & economic assistance, Using aid to influence policy/keep allies happy, using economic sanctions against countries
2.3 Culture & Ideology- Using media to promote particular image/message, exporting culture in form of film/TV/brands, Gradually persuading doubters that a particular action/view is in their interests
3 Changing Geographies- currently Unipolar world(1 superpower) 1800-1918-British Empire-25% world, 1918-45- Transition period-USA & Russia increasing, Nazi Germany- Multipolar. 1945-90- USA(capitalist) & USSR(communist)- Cold war period. 1990-2010-USA- USSR collapse. 2010- USA,EU,China(BRICs)-possibly Multipolar
3.1 British empire collapse- colonial countries demanded independence, political movements(Gandhi's india), UK could not afford it, war bankrupted, needed to focus on post-war rebuilding in UK
3.2 Growing power due to-
3.2.1 Energy resources- Russia, Gulf States(Qatar,UAE,Saudi) oil & gas resources- economic power & energy weapons
3.2.2 Alliances- EU growth from 6-1957 to 27-2009. EU GDP exceeds USA.
3.2.3 Economic power-China-economic growth since 1990-2nd largest economy- worlds manufacturing workshop.
3.2.4 Demographic weight- some countries have economic potential- e.g China & India both have over 15% world population- market
3.2.5 Nuclear weapons- Ultimate threat- USA,Russia,China,France,UK- Treaty. Pakistan,Israel,India,N Korea not part of treaty.
4 Theories
4.1 Liberal
4.1.1 Rostow- Take-off model- 5 stage linear economic development- take off when preconditions met e.g-transport infrastructure. Industrialisation follows- jobs,trade & consumers. -Many countries borrow heavily & invest money into projects to meet pre-conditions- fail to develop & end up in debt
4.1.2 World Bank-Asian model- China, S Korea & Japan developed rapidly since 1970, opened up to free trade & foreign investment, state invested in education & skills development. -fails to take full account of support & aid provided by USA during cold war.
4.2 Marxist
4.2.1 Frank's Dependency theory- World divided to NvS. Developed world keeps rest of world underdeveloped to exploit cheap resources. Aid,debt & trade patterns reinforce the dependency. NICs broken out of divide- theory does not allow for LDCs to have a say in their development
4.2.2 Wallerstein's world systems theory- Core,periphery,semi-periphery (NICs), some countries could develop & gain power- weath & power not static. - does not explain world, written during cold war(bipolar), does not account for China
4.3 India & China development- neither allied in Cold war- avoided dependency by developing internally & not allowing world trade until 1990s, Invested in home-grown technology (Space programmes, nuclear weapons & pharmaceuticals)(India(IT companies(WIPRO)- no reliance, opened up to FDI, free trade in special economic zones after certain level of development achieved.
4.3.1 India- lack of investment in basic infrastructure-poor transport & power shortages. China invested in infrastructure & better placed to attract FDI
5 Role of Superpowers
5.1 Control
5.1.1 colonial- threatening, military voce, imposing government systems, imposing laws & language of colonial power, different legal and social status between colonisers & colonised. -colonies provided raw materials. -Mines,farms,railways & ports developed. -rebellions-1945> ,Africa-did not become independent-replaced with neo-colonialism Mechanisms of Neo-colonialism Developed Nations- Aid for corrupt dictators in return for political support, bilateral aid that benefit suppliers, importing cheap raw materials & exporting expensive manufactured goods to LDCs, brain drain of skilled workers TNCs- Exploitation of resources e.g Nigerian Oil, protect technology with patents & licensing agreements, exploit workers in low skill factories-low wages International organisations- Unsuitable lending-debt crisis, intervening in economies of developing world using SAP to ensure debt repayments, not doing enough to create level playing field-decrease trade with developing world Marxist/Structuralist.- LDCs suffered long term war/conflict-prevented investment/development. NICs developed following independence. Still corrupt-finance & aid never trickles down.
5.2 International decision making
5.2.1 World bank,IMF,UN(promotes peace & cooperation),WTO(promotes free trade-some say works in the interests only of the free world) IGOs-trade blocs(NAFTA,EU)- promote free trade but impose tariffs & quotas on non-members. EU-joint policies- Economics & free trade, Foreign & defence policy, Social & environmental policy -Increased power but has internal arguments,less powerful military than USA.
5.2.2 G8(USA, UK, France, Germany, Italy, Canada, Japan, Russia) -65% global wealth, 95% global nuclear weapons, 75% global military spending, 15% global population
5.3 Trade
5.3.1 Superpowers have advantage in world trade- most TNCs originate in MEDCs, most major shipping companies & airlines originate in USA & Europe, many developed countries allow free trade between each other.
5.3.2 LDCs- export low-value commodities-coffee,copper,cotton, imports manufactured goods- some broken out of cycle. China now exports manufactured goods, India-IT & software exports. -rising wealth & power. Russia & Gulf States-Oil & gas as trade weapons-State owned companies control export volumes & profits.
5.4 superpower culture
5.4.1 Common values & beliefs- religious, attitudes, moral & ethical issues, language, dress, art (music,dance,literature), norms (behaviour & laws) emergence of global culture- globalisation- dominated by Europe & USA- McDonaldisation, Disneyfication)- threatens tradition Influence of western values- Democracy-everyone has right to vote; Individualism-Individuals have right to pursue own actions & dreams; Consumerism- Wealth, and ability to buy goods & services leads to happiness; Technology-problems solved by using high-end technology; Economic Freedom- free markets, people make money how they choose
5.4.2 Factors promoting cultural globalisation Internet increases access to information; growth of TNCs; Global brand logos(nike); English as business/media language; growth of tourism & cultural mixing; stronger & more widespread global trade flows, Air travel increased-migration & spread of culture, Media(disney & NBC)
5.4.3 Fears of global culture-lead to backlash-protests 2005-UN convention on protection & promotion of diversity of cultural expressions- allows countries to protect culture e.g limit foreign media
6 superpower futures
6.1 BRICs
6.1.1 Chinas economic growth outpaced old powers-2000-07. BRICs rapidly adopting communication technology & improving life expectancy throughout better healthcare. Increased household income and more moving out of poverty.-increasing middle class.- improved QoL & happiness, increased heart disease,obesity & stress-realted illness. China- increased pressure for political change,freedom & democracy. BRIC consumers- strained resources & environmental concerns- implications on water resources, land, air quality & ecological footprints
6.2 Old v New
6.2.1 threats to existing powers- Resources-fossil fuel supplies tighten-increasing demand & shrinking resources Military dominance-Russia, India, China.-now nuclear powers-shift military balance to Asia. Space- China & India now have active, manned, well funded space programmes Outsourcing-India benefitted from IT & software outsourcing. China-global manufacturing shift. Ageing-Japan & EU- ageing populations- pension funding crisis. China issues with one child policy. India & Brazil more youthful & innovative. Emerging powers have government owned investment funds-Sovereign wealth funds- from oil wealth.-used to buy assets(foreign governments can control strategic assets in another country) e.g China-$100m in VISA. China recently investing in Oil & mineral extraction in Africa. In form of FDI/developmental assistance- infrastructure building- neo-colonialism. -China wants resource supplies more than political & economic influence. China in Africa- Opportunities/benefits- Chinese FDI boosted Africas economic growth, New markets for raw materials, investment in mines & factories- create infrastructure, China providing development assistance-no debt Dependency/problems-Chinese factory-produced goods undercut price of local goods, many employees chinese immigrants, class in zambia with locals, Chinese accused of political interference-sudan- protect access to oil supplies
6.3 Tensions
6.3.1 No dominant superpower-greater equality of power-arguments more common, energy resource battles, trade & political agreements more bilateral-less global( increased tensions-some countries left out), emerging powers interfere with superpower spheres of influence
6.3.2 Clash of cultures-East v West. 9/11, Iraq, Taliban & Al-Qaeda Islamic oil rich world- more wealth & power- increased confidence
6.3.3 USA & Europe- Politics- EU socialism is a choice, Social Policy- USA-smaller welfare state, Interventionism-USA more ready to take military action to protect interests, Trade- Free trade agreements viewed more sceptically in USA
7 Synoptic Links
7.1 Players- World bank, IMF, UN, WTO. EU,OPEC. Powerful countries(USA) viewed by some political organisations(Anti-globalisation movement)-responsible problems such as environmental degradation & cultural globalisation.
7.2 Actions-Global geopolitics- decisions involve international action- peacekeeping by UN, NATO. Superpowers follow neo-liberal, market-led approach to economics & development- not environmentally sustainable
7.3 Futures- Business as usual- USA unipolar dominance. Multi-polar future more likely- BRIC emergence- geopolitical & economic. Rest would follow if one moved towards more sustainable consumption.
7.4 Unit 1-Going global-Globalisation plays major role in creating wealth for superpowers. Unit 3- water convicts-emerging superpowers place demands on water resources. Energy security- Oil & Gas key source of power for Russia & Gulf States- increasing geopolitical tension
7.4.1 wider global issues-Globalisation driven by players in superpowers(TNCs, Governments & consumers) Costs & Benefits (Environmental, economic, social). Contributions to global warming- USA-22% greenhouse gasses-2007, China 18%.
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