MOTIVATION AND EMOTION

dockergirl94
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

Mind Map on MOTIVATION AND EMOTION, created by dockergirl94 on 04/30/2014.

56
1
0
Tags No tags specified
dockergirl94
Created by dockergirl94 over 5 years ago
Whole Number Glossary L1
Lee Holness
Navegacion
Adriana Forero
Principios de Vuelo
Adriana Forero
Music Therapy - CBMT practice exam #1
Jessica H.
1PR101 1.test - 1. část
Nikola Truong
What were the Cause and Consequences of The Cuban Missile Crisis October 1962
matthewnr73
Geography - Unit 1A
NicoleCMB
Chemical Symbols
Keera
Realidad De Nuestra Identidad Cultural
53831
ENG LIT TECHNIQUES
Heloise Tudor
MOTIVATION AND EMOTION
1 a valenced response to an external/internal stimulus
1.1 Basic vs Emotional schemas
1.1.1 Innate/evolutionary, automatic process, universal. Fear, anger, sadness, joy, surprise, disgust
1.1.2 learned, developed, more complex. shame, jealousy
2 Energization of behaviour that gives direction (approach and avoidance) initiates, maintains, directs and finalizes an action
2.1 Types of motivation
2.1.1 Homeostasis: basic motivation to reach a stable physiological state, given a set point,
2.1.1.1 settling point: equilibrium between opposite forces, affected by external elements (hunger vs satiety depending on availability of resources)
2.1.2 extrinsic: external, linked to reward and punishment . leads to negative affect and undermines performance.
2.1.2.1
2.1.3 intrinsic: internal, personal gain, needs, goal . leads to positive affect and greater performance
2.1.3.1 Over-justification effect: reduction of intrinsic motivation by extrinsic reward
2.2 NEEDS: satisfaction of a need is necessary for an organism to live a healthy life.
2.2.1 psychological needs
2.2.1.1 Deci & Ryan, Self-detemrination theory. basic needs: competence, autonomy, relatedness, people want to feel affective in their activities so they feel they are self chosen and to feel closeness to others.
2.2.1.1.1
2.2.1.2 Epstein.basic needs: self esteem, relatedness (affection) and self consistency (safety) and pleasure
2.2.1.2.1
2.2.1.3 American Dream: happinesss results when individuals acquire popularity, influence and money luxuries.
2.2.1.3.1
2.2.1.4 Swann: need self enhancement and self consistency.
2.2.1.5 Terror Management theory: individuals have desire to live. we are aware of our own death, therefore 2 defence mechanims: self-esteem, safety. less important: self-expansive.
2.2.2 psychological and physiological
2.2.2.1 MASLOW:
2.2.2.1.1
2.2.2.1.2 CRITICISMS, developmental stages of affection. self-actualisation isnt functional under an evolutionary POV. developmental priorities may not be related to current priorities
2.2.2.1.3 OTHER TYPES
2.2.2.1.3.1 KENRIK, pyramid with evolutionary functions at top (mate acquisition, parenting, mate retention)
2.2.2.1.4 Sheldon: converged theories. four fundamental are enhancement needs. competence, autonomy, belongingness and self-esteem. siggetsed 10 needs however other 6 changed across cultures
2.2.2.2 MASLOW
2.3 DRIVES: acts of motivation that have primarily biological purposes
3 LINK : emotional schema can be temperamental or motivational. emotion modulates motivation to reach a goal.
4 NEURAL CORRELATES
4.1 APPROACHES TO EMOTIONAL BRAIN
4.1.1 LIMBIC SYSTEM THEORY. (MacLean). 1 system for all emotions,
4.1.2 BASIC EMOTION THEORY. 6 basic emotions, each emotion has a different system.
4.1.3 LEDOUX: one emotion processed at a time. how brain learns about, detects and responds to events/stimuli
4.1.3.1 low road directly from thalamus to amygdala -> triggers/primes automatic responses. high road: thalamus -> sensory cortex (for analysis) -> amygdala (slower process)
4.1.3.2 AMYGDALA: to give valence/relative value to a sensory input, mediates avoidance/approach.
4.1.3.2.1 CENTRAL (innate responses, outputs)
4.1.3.2.1.1 output to orbital & medial prefrontal cortex. leads to conscious experience of reward, planning to obtain reward and avoid punishment
4.1.3.2.1.2 hypothalamus & brain stem: autonomic, endocrine and behavoural responses
4.1.3.2.2 LATERAL (inputs)
4.1.3.2.2.1 TRIGGER CELLS & STORAGE CELLS: associative learning and unconscious emotional memory (vs hippocampal conscious memory of emotion)
4.1.3.2.3 FEAR & REWARD
4.2 DOPAMINE:
4.2.1 Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA - regulates) -> prefrontal & insular cortex/nucleus accumbens & limbic structures
4.2.2 REWARD PREDICTION ERROR (Schultz): dopamine signal = actual reward - expected reward. +ve = activation, -ve = depression, 0 = no response
4.2.3 increases effect of positive/negative motivators
4.3 NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS (linked to reward, addiction and emotional stimuli)
4.3.1 dopamine release occurs in anticipation of reward, so is motivational
4.3.2 INPUTS: prefrontal association cortex, amygdala, dopaminergic cells of VTA
4.3.3 OUTPUTS: basal ganglia-> thalamus -> prefrontal cortex. this leads to awareness.
5 IMPULSIVITY: Acting suddenly, and without plan to satisfy immediate desire. Inability to inhibit inappropriate actions and insensitivity to consequences. (Moallem & Papachristou)
5.1 Sensitivity to Reward: predisposition to detect and pursue rewarding stimuli
5.1.1 Nucleus Accumbens: high activity shows more sensitivity to rewards -> more impulsive
5.1.1.1 Demos: heightened activity to appetitive cues can predict future behaviors. eg. higher activity to a beer bottle stimulus predicts future alcohol intake
5.1.2 Delay reward discounting: focus on ST reward compared to LT greater reward. Measured with IOWA gambling task
5.1.2.1 Somatic Marker hypothesis: people have somatic markers that regulate decision making, more impulsive -> markers unable to be read and therefore not used as well -> worse decisions
5.1.3 Risky decision making. Balloon Analog Risk Task
5.1.4 Neural circuits
5.1.4.1 +ve correlations to impulsivity
5.1.4.1.1 ventral amygdala
5.1.4.2 -ve correlations to impulsivity
5.1.4.2.1 dorsal amygdala.
5.1.5 Behaviorual Activation System: regulates appetitive and reward seeking behaviour, increases motor output. Behavioural Inhibition System: passive avoidance of punishment and non-reward, decreases motor output
5.2 Response Inhibition: ability to inhibit thoughts or behaviour. measured with Go-nogo tasks (stop-signal task)
5.2.1 poor response inhibition, -> risk factor as makes more vulnerable to contextual cues -> more impulsivity.
5.2.2 Neural Circuits
5.2.2.1 +ve correlation to impulsivity
5.2.2.1.1 Bilateral Caudale
5.2.2.1.2 Dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus.
5.2.2.2 -ve correlation to impulsivity
5.2.2.2.1 vPFC
5.3 Measurement as a personality trait: Barratt Impulsiveness Scale

Media attachments