3.1 Feminists generally believe that the education
system is patriarchal/ male-dominated.
3.2 Miriam David (2008) points out that women
are more likely to attend new, post -1992
unis than more prestigious institutions.
3.3 Female disadvantage may still have
an effect on subject choices, &
particularly the under-representation
of women in most science subjects.
3.4 Feminist Michelle Stanworth (1983) studied
A-level classes in a further education college.
3.4.1 She found the following bias against girls: teachers found it difficult to
remember the girls in their class, teachers did not expect even the most able
girls to go into high-status jobs, pupils believed that boys received more
attention than girls, & boys were more likely to join classroom discussions &
to be asked ?s by the teachers & girls underestimated their own ability.
3.4.2 Stanworth's research has been criticized by Randall (1987)
for being based on interviews rather than direct observation
of classroom interaction. Randall's own research failed to
find the same bias against girls.
3.5 Francis (2000) - girls & achievement
3.5.1 Studies found by Francis suggest that there continues to
be some disadvantages for girls in the education system.
3.5.2 Research in London schools found
that males still dominate classrooms.
3.5.3 Boys disciplined more harshly than girls; this
leads to girls getting less attention than boys.
3.5.4 Gender divisons in subject choice are getting stronger,
with fewer women taking IT & pure science degrees.
3.6 Colley (1998) - gender inequalities in subject choice
3.6.1 Explains the continuing
differences in subject
choice by gender.
3.6.2 Traditional definitions
in masculinity &
femininity are still
3.6.3 Subjects continue to have different
images. For instance, computer
studies still retains a masculine image.
3.6.4 Girls tend to feel comfortable with
scientific & technical subjects only
when taught in single-sex schools or
3.7 Norman et al. (1988) - Socialization
3.7.1 Argues that sex stereotyping
starts from a very young age.
3.7.2 Girls are given dolls which emphasize a caring role;
this can affect career aspirations & subject choice.
3.7.3 Boys are more likely to be given constructional toys that
help develop a scientific & mathematical skills & concept
3.7.4 Gender sterotypes are continually
reinforced through the media.