crinklechips1
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

AQA Additional

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crinklechips1
Created by crinklechips1 over 5 years ago
Ionic Bondic Flashcards.
anjumn10
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Ammonia
1 Reversible Reactions
1.1 The products react to re-form the reactants
1.2 At equilibrium, in a closed system the rate of the forward reaction is the same as the reverse reaction + the products remain at the same concentration
1.3 Increasing the temperature will increase the endothermic reaction to use up the extra heat.
1.4 Decreasing the temp. will increase the exothermic reaction
1.5 Raising the pressure encourages the side with the least volume/gas molecules
1.5.1 Lowering the pressure encourages the side with the most volume/gas molecules.
2 The Haber Process
2.1 Nitrogen obtained from AIR
2.2 Hydrogen obtained from NATURAL GAS or other sources like crude oil
2.3 Reaction conditions: - Temp. 450'C -200 atmospheres -Iron catalyst
2.4
2.5 N2g +3Hg <--->2NH3g
2.5.1 -High temp. favours backwards reaction but lower temp = slower rate of reaction. 450'C is a compromise between maximum yield and speed of reaction
2.5.2 -High pressure favours forward reaction but would be too expensive to go much higher than 200
2.6 Formed as a gas, cooled in a condenser and liquifies
2.7 Unused nitrogen is recycled
3 Catalysts speed up both the forward and backward reactions equally, so reaches equilibrium quicker but still ends up with the same amount
4 Equilibrium - State of balance
5 Closed system - Nothing can get in or out
6 Used in: -Fertilisers -Explosives -Cleaning Fluids
7 Properties: -Colourless gas -Weak alkali -Very soluble in water