Carbonyl compounds

charlotte_1995
Mind Map by charlotte_1995, updated more than 1 year ago
charlotte_1995
Created by charlotte_1995 almost 7 years ago
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Chemistry Chemistry Mind Map on Carbonyl compounds, created by charlotte_1995 on 05/11/2013.
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Carbonyl compounds
1 The Carbonyl group
1.1 C==O
1.1.1 Aldehyde-......al Ketone-.......one Carboxyllic acid-.........anoic acid Acyl chloride-........anoyl chloride Amide-.......amide Ester......anoate
2 Alcohols from aldehydes and ketones
2.1 Primary alcohols oxides to aldehydes and secondary to ketones
2.1.1 Acidified potassium dichromate with sulfuric acid - in equation just add (O) and make H20 in equation
2.1.1.1 Orange to green colour change
2.1.2 ROH+2(O)=RCOOH+H2O
2.2 Nucleophilic addition - C==0 becomes polar - eectronegativity so the C can be attacked by nucleophiles e.g. H-
2.2.1 : to C and == to O
2.2.1.1 O:- to H+
2.2.1.2 Same mechanism
2.2.1.2.1 Forms 2-hydroxy...........nitrile
2.2.2 RCHO+2(H)=RCH2OH
3 Hydroxynitriiles from aldehydes and ketones
3.1 Same but
3.2 RCHO+HCN=RCH(OH)CN
3.3 Can be turned into carboxylic acid
3.3.1 RCH(OH)CN+H2O+H+=RCH)OH)COOH+NH4+
4 Esterification
4.1 Test for carboxylic acids - reaction with carbonates - effervescence
4.2 Carboxylic acids + alcohol = ester + water
4.2.1 RCOOH+ROH=RCOOR+H2O
4.2.2 The OH from the carboxylic acid and H from alcohol for the H20
4.3 Name the bit next to the 0 and then the other bit and add oate
5 Uses of esters
5.1 Food flavourings
5.1.1 Manufacturing costs a lot less than extracting
5.2 Plasticizers
5.2.1 Added to polymers to let the molecules slide over each other more easily
5.2.1.1 Makes it ofter and more flexible e.g. PVC and uPVC
6 Oil fats and biodiesel
6.1 Acid catalysed hydrolysis
6.1.1 Heating under reflux conditions with dilute HCl
6.1.1.1 RCOOR+H2O=RCOOH+R2OH
6.1.1.1.1 Lies to the left so doesn't work very well
6.2 Base catalysed hydrolysis
6.2.1 Heating under reflux conditions with NaOH
6.2.1.1 RCOOR+NaOH=RCOO-Na++ROH
6.2.1.1.1 Lies to the right so works better but makes and acid and a salt
6.3 Vegetable oil
6.3.1 Triglycerols - triester
6.3.1.1 Hydrolysed by heating with 3NaOH
6.3.1.1.1 produces glycerol and sodium carboxylate
6.3.1.1.1.1 Glycerol used in cosmetics and toothpaste
6.3.1.1.1.2 Sodium carboxylate used as soap - long chain represents the hydrophobic end as its non polar so dissolves in oil and greece
6.3.1.2 Biodiesel
6.3.1.2.1 Heating with 3methanol and 3NaOH
6.3.1.2.1.1 Base-catalysed tranesterification
6.3.1.2.1.1.1 Makes methyl ester(biodiesel) lays on top as it's denser and glycerol
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