C7: Alkanes, Alkenes and Alcohol

jamiemcparlin
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Chemistry (C7: Alkanes, Alkenes and Alcohols) Mind Map on C7: Alkanes, Alkenes and Alcohol, created by jamiemcparlin on 05/11/2013.

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jamiemcparlin
Created by jamiemcparlin over 6 years ago
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C7: Alkanes, Alkenes and Alcohol
1 Alkanes
1.1 A group of hydrocarbons
1.1.1 In this group atoms are joined together by single carbon-carbon bonds
1.2 Are saturated carbons
1.2.1 This is because they contain only single bonds and can't make anymore
1.3 Do not react well with aqueous solutions
1.3.1 The C-C and C-H bonds are too strong and unreactive
1.3.2 They burn well in plenty of air to produce carbon dioxide and water
1.3.2.1 An example of a balanced equation of combustion of an Alkane would be:
1.3.2.1.1 C3H8 + 5O2 = 3CO2 + 4H2O
1.3.2.1.2 CH4+ 2O2 = CO2 + 2H2O
1.4 The general formula for an alkane is CnH(2n+2) where "n" is the number of carbon atoms
1.4.1 Methane
1.4.1.1 CH4
1.4.2 Ethane
1.4.2.1 C2H6
1.4.3 Propane
1.4.3.1 C3H8
1.4.4 Butane
1.4.4.1 C4H10
2 Alkenes
2.1 A group of hydrocarbons
2.1.1 Their atoms are joined together in reactive C=C bonds
2.2 they are unsaturated because the atoms can stil react
2.3 The general fomula for Alkenes is CnH(2n^3) Where "n" is the number of carbon atoms
2.3.1 Methene
2.3.1.1 CH8
2.3.2 Ethene
2.3.2.1 C2H64
2.3.3 Propene
2.3.3.1 C3H216
2.3.4 Butene
2.3.4.1 C4H512
3 Alcohols
3.1 Characteristics are due to their functional group -OH
3.2 The general formula for Alcohols is CnH(2n+1)OH where "n" is the number of carbon atoms
3.2.1 Methanol
3.2.1.1 CH3OH
3.2.1.2 Can be used as:
3.2.1.2.1 Chemical feedstock
3.2.1.2.2 Cosmetics manufacturing
3.2.2 The two simplest alcohols are methanol and ethanol.
3.2.3 Ethanol
3.2.3.1 C2H5OH
3.2.3.2 Can be used as:
3.2.3.2.1 A solvent
3.2.3.2.2 A fuel
3.3 Properties of alcohols are different depending on their structure
3.3.1 Short alcoholshave low boiling points because the intermolecular forces are weak
3.3.2 Longer hydrocarbons behave like an alkane. They are less soluble on water and float due to their low density
4 Alcohol Reactions
4.1 Alcohol reacts with sodium to produce a Salt and hydrogen gas
4.1.1 Ethanol + Sodium = Sodium Ethoxide + Hydrogen
4.1.1.1 2C3H5OH + 2Na = 2C2H5O-Na+ + H2
4.1.2 Alcohols, water and alkanes react differently with Sodium
4.1.2.1 In Alcohol, sodium sinks, doesn't melt and steadily gives of Hydrogen gas
4.1.2.2 There is no reaction between sodium and Alkane
4.1.2.3 In water sodium melts, fizzes and whizzes round on the surface, rapidly giving off hydrogen
4.2 Alcohols burn in air because of the presence of a hydrocarbon chain
4.2.1 When Ethanol burns in air
4.2.1.1 2C2H5OH + 3O2 = 3H2O + 2CO2

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