1.1.1 less financially dependent, paid better
(similar to men), equal pay and anti
discrimination laws help narrow the pay
gap. girls' greater success in education.
1.2.1 the decline in the influence of region in society. sociologists argue that religious
institutions and ideas are losing their influence. as a result churches carry less
weight in society and people are less likely to be influenced.
1.3 declining stigma and changing attitudes
1.3.1 stigma refers to the negative label,
social disaproval or shame
attatched to a person, action or
relationship. in the past divorce and
divorcees have been stigmatised.
1.4 rising expectations of marriage
1.4.1 functionalist sociologist such as fletcher argue that the high
expectations placed on marriage today are a major cause of rising
1.5 changes in the law
1.5.1 equalising the grounds for divorce
between the sexes, widening the
grounds for divorce and making
2.1.1 fewer people are marrying. marriage rates at their lowest
since the 1920's. however there are more remarriages,
people are marrying later, and church/religious weddings
are less common at 35% compared to 60% in 1981.
2.2.1 it's an unmarried couple in a sexual
relationship living together. over 2
million cohabitating couples in Britain.
the number of cohabiting couples is
expected to double again in 2021
2.3 same-sex relationships
2.3.1 about 5-7% of the adult population have same-sex
relationships. increase social acceptance of same-sex
relationships in recent years.
2.4 one-person households
2.4.1 big rise in the number of people living alone-2006 3/10 households contained
only one person nearly 3x the figure for 1961. half of all one person
households are people of pensionable age.
3 parents and children
3.1.1 over 4 in every 10 children
are now born outside
marriage, women are having
children later, women are
having fewer children than in
the 20th century and more
women are remaning
3.2 lone-parent families
3.2.1 lone-parent families now make up 24% of all families, 1 child in 4 lives in a
lone-parent family, over 90% of these families are headed by lone mothers
and a child living with a lone-parent is more likely to be in poverty than those
living with 2 parents.
3.3.1 stepfamilies account over 10% of all families with dependent
children in Britain, in 86% of stepfamilies at least one child is
from the womens previous relationship and 11% from the
mans previous relationship and 3% from both partners.
18.104.22.168 Ferri and Smith found that stepfamilies are
very similar to first families in all major
4 ethnic differences in family patterns
4.1 black families
4.1.1 black caribbean and black african
people have a higher proportion of
lone parent households
4.2 asian families
4.2.1 bangladeshi, pakistani and indian households tend to
be larger than those of other ethnic groups. at 4.5,4.1
and 3.3 persons per housholds respectively compared
with 2.3 for both black caribbean and white british
housholds and 2.4 for the population as a whole.
5 the extended family today
5.1 charles study of swansea found that classic three
generation family all living together under one roof
is now "all but extinct"
5.2 however while the extended family may have declined it
has not entirely disappeared. Wilmott argues it continues
to exist as a 'dispersed extended family' where relatives
are geographically separated but maintain contact
through visits and phonecalls.