Rivers Floods and Management 1

merrettn
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Hydrological Cycle River Discharge Long Profile valley profile

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merrettn
Created by merrettn over 5 years ago
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Rivers Floods and Management 1
1 The Hydrological Cycle
1.1 Open System
1.2 Watershed
1.2.1 Boundary of the drainage basin
1.3 Inputs
1.3.1 Precipitation
1.4 Storage
1.4.1 Interception
1.4.2 Vegetation storage
1.4.3 Groundwater storage
1.4.4 Channel storage
1.5 Flows and Processes
1.5.1 Suface Runoff
1.5.1.1 Water flowing over the land
1.5.2 Infiltration
1.5.2.1 Water soaking into the soil
1.5.3 Groundwater flow
1.5.3.1 Water flowing slowly in the water table
1.5.4 Throughflow
1.5.4.1 Water moving slowly downhill through the soil
1.5.5 Percolation
1.5.5.1 water seeping through the soil
1.6 Outputs
1.6.1 Evaporation
1.6.1.1 water turning from a liquid to a gas
1.6.2 Transpiration
1.6.2.1 Evaporation from the leaves
1.6.3 Evapotranspiration
1.6.3.1 evaporation and transpiration together
2 Water balance
2.1 water surplus --> water depletion --> water recharge
3 River Discharge
3.1 The volume of water flowing in a river
3.1.1 Hot weather can cause a decrease in river discharge as more is being evaporated
3.1.2 Abstraction can cause a reduction in discharge
3.2 Storm Hydrographs show river discharge over time
3.2.1 Rock type affects lag time and peak discharge
3.2.2 Soil type affects lag time and peak discharge
3.2.3 Precipitation affects peak discharge
3.2.4 Temperature affects peak discharge and lag time
4 The Long Profile
4.1 Types of Erosion
4.1.1 Abrasion
4.1.1.1 Eroded pieces of rock srape and rub against the bed, the sandpaper effect
4.1.2 Hydraulic action
4.1.2.1 The pressure of water breaks off rock partiles away from the beg
4.1.3 Corrosion
4.1.3.1 The dissolving of rock by chemical processes.
4.2 Transportation and Deposition
4.2.1 Solution
4.2.1.1 Dissolved material being carried along
4.2.2 Suspension
4.2.2.1 Silt and Clay are carried along in the water
4.2.3 Saltation
4.2.3.1 Material bouncing along the river bed
4.2.4 Traction
4.2.4.1 Large boulders roll along the river bed
4.2.5 Deposition occurs when the river doesnt have enough energy, this can occur when the discharge decreases
4.3 The Hjulstrom Curve
4.3.1 The link between the rivers velocity and the competence
5 Channel Charateristics
5.1 Long Profile
5.1.1 Shows the gradient of the river channel as the distance increasing
5.2 The velocity and discharge of a river increases as you go downstream
5.2.1 Effiiency is measured by hydraulic radius
5.3 Upper Stage
5.3.1 Steep V shape. High Vertical Erosion. Large particles are transported. Little deposition.
5.4 Middle Stage
5.4.1 Wider Valley. More later erosion. Deposition causes floodplain. particle size decreases
5.5 Lower Stage
5.5.1 Very Wide Valley. Low turbelance. Smaller Particles