Key debate 1: is the Nuclear family Universal?


Sociology2 Mind Map on Key debate 1: is the Nuclear family Universal?, created by kasia.lovatt on 05/12/2013.
Mind Map by kasia.lovatt, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by kasia.lovatt almost 10 years ago

Resource summary

Key debate 1: is the Nuclear family Universal?
  1. Argument For
    1. George Peter Murdock
      1. States that family is a 'social group characterised by common residence, economic cooperation and reproduction'
        1. It includes adults of both sexes, at least two whom maintain a socially approved sexual relationshsip
          1. One or more children, own or adopted, of the sexually cohabiting adults
          2. He studied 250 societies
            1. Said he found Nuclear families in all of them
              1. Necessary for a smooth running of society
              2. Claimed the family was a universal institute because of his findings
          3. Argument against
            1. Felicity Edholm (1982)
              1. Argues that there is nothing normal or natural about the Nuclear family
                1. States that the Nuclear family and kin relationships are socially constructed
              2. 1) Not all societies have nuclear families
                1. Kathleen Gough (1959) Nayar from southern India
                  1. Girls married to husband, once puberty is reached, they can visit a number of husbands
                    1. They can only have 12
                      1. Men can have more than 12 wives that he can visit
                        1. No long life unit
                          1. Men have no duty towards wives
                            1. Husbands do not live with the wives or chikldren
                          2. 2) Murdock ignore the importance of extended families
                            1. Extended family is...
                              1. Includes blood or marriage relation beyond nuclear family
                                1. Uncles, grandparents, aunts, cousins
                                2. Can be very important in bringing up children, financial, care of elderly
                                  1. may live together or close by
                                    1. Extended kinship network - live apart but keep contact
                                  2. 3) some families do not include two adults
                                    1. Lone parent family
                                      1. Headed by one parent, 9/10 by female
                                      2. Female-headed families/Matrifocl families
                                        1. headed by female with no significant male
                                          1. Common among African Caribbean families in the UK
                                        2. Nancie Gouzalez (1970)
                                          1. Believes matifocl families are a well organised social group
                                            1. Adapted to living on low income
                                              1. Mothers of 10 get strong support form female relatives
                                                1. Friends help them raise a family
                                              2. Yanina Sheeran (1993)
                                                1. Believes female core (mother + children)
                                                  1. Basic family unit
                                                    1. Argues this family Unit is universal
                                                  2. Criticism
                                                    1. falls to allow for male-headed lone parent families
                                                2. 4) Some families do not have adults of both sexes
                                                  1. Gay families
                                                    1. Some same sex families may include children from a heterosexual relationship
                                                      1. Adoption or IVF
                                                    2. Sydney Callaham (1997)
                                                      1. believes gay or lesbian households with children should be regarded as families
                                                      2. Civil Partnership
                                                        1. Similar legal rights and obligations to marriage.
                                                          1. Implies social acceptance of same sex relationships
                                                            1. 2012 'marriage' debate continues about potential legalisation of marriage of ss. partneship
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