Human Gas Exchange

peggyhughes
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

Alveoli and the mechanism of breathing

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peggyhughes
Created by peggyhughes over 5 years ago
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Human Gas Exchange
1 Gas Exchange System
1.1 INSIDE BODY BECAUSE...
1.1.1 Air not dense enough to support or protect delicate structures
1.1.2 Would quickly dry out if outside the body
1.2 Gas exchange occurs at the Alveoli, which is well adapted for exchange:
1.2.1 Large surface area to volume ratio
1.2.2 Thin walls
1.2.3 Constant concentration gradient due to moving mediums
2 Breathing
2.1 INSPIRATION
2.1.1 Breathing in
2.1.2 Active process
2.1.3 1. External intercostal muscles contract and internal intercostal muscles relax. Ribcage moves up and out
2.1.3.1 2. Diaphragm contracts and flattens
2.1.3.1.1 3. Volume in thorax increased and pressure reduced
2.1.3.1.1.1 4. Air rushes in
2.2 EXPIRATION
2.2.1 Breathing out
2.2.2 Largely passive process
2.2.2.1 More muscle contraction when forcefully breathing e.g. during exercise
2.2.3 1. Internal intercostal muscles contract and external intercostal muscles relax. This moves the ribcage down
2.2.3.1 2. The diaphragm relaxes, curving up
2.2.3.1.1 3. The volume of the thorax is reduced and the pressure increased
2.2.3.1.1.1 4. Air rushes out
2.3 PULMONARY VENTILATION

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