Unit 1

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A-Levels Chemistry Mind Map on Unit 1, created by jodieamelia on 05/12/2013.
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Unit 1
1 Electrons, bonding and structure
1.1 ionisation energy
1.1.1 factors influencing it:
1.1.1.1 nuclear charge

Annotations:

  • : a large nuclear charge means the outer electron is difficult to remove, so the inisation energy is large
1.1.1.2 atomic radii

Annotations:

  • in larger atoms the outer most electron is father away from the nucleus and so is less attracted, so therefore easier to remove
1.1.1.3 Electron shielding

Annotations:

  • if more inner electron shells shield the nuclear charge from the outer electron, it will be easier to remove and therefore a low ionisation enery
1.1.2 first ionisation energy defintion

Annotations:

  • the energy required to remove one electron from each atom in one mole of gaseous atoms to form one mole of 1+ ions
1.1.3 across a period

Annotations:

  • a general increase: increasing nuclear charge smaller atomic radii similar shielding
1.1.4 down a group

Annotations:

  • general decrease: larger atomic radii more shielding larger nuclear charge is outweighed by the previous two factors
1.2 ionic bonding

Annotations:

  • bonding between non metals and metals electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions arises when an electron is transferred from one atom to another.
1.3 covalent bonding

Annotations:

  • bonding between non-metals sharing of a pair of electrons between two atoms, with one electron being donated from each atom
1.4 dative covalent bond

Annotations:

  • same as a covalent bond, however the shared electrons are both donated from one of the atoms in the bond.
1.5 bonding angles

Annotations:

  • linear: 180 non linear: 104.5 Pyramidal: 107 tetrahedral: 109.5 octahedral: 90 trigonal bipyramidal: 90 and 120 trigonal planar: 120 Lone pair of electrons>bonded pair
1.6 polarisation

Annotations:

  • covalently bonded. bond polarisation is when the bond had become slightly ionic in character because it has a dipole moment. between a slightly negative and slightly positive atom bonding.
1.7 intermolecular forces
1.7.1 van der waals forces

Annotations:

  • instantaneous dipole between polar bond induces an instantaneous dipole in neighbouring molecule
1.7.2 permanent dipole-dipole forces

Annotations:

  • occurs between molecules with permanent dipoles, a slightly negative atom on one molecule attracts the slightly positive atom on another molecule causing electrostatic forces to occur
1.7.3 hydrogen bonding

Annotations:

  • relatively strong type of permanent dipoleoccuring between a molecule with H and O, N or F
1.8 water

Annotations:

  • has a high surface tension and forms a meniscus because the hydrogen bonds pull the water surface downwards
1.8.1 ice lower density than water

Annotations:

  • a whole network of hydrogen bonds, and are kept apart to form a littice by this arrangement, giving a lot of space in the structure making ice lower density than water
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