1 The study of processes involved when
indivduals or groups select, purchase, use
or dispose of products, services, ideas, or
experiences to satisfy the needs and
2 Plays an important role in our
economical, political and cultural
3 Buy products not for what they do, but for what they
4 Role theory
4.1 People act out many different roles they
may modify their consumption
decisions according to the particular
'play' they are in at the time.
22.214.171.124 CHOOSERS: Somebody who can choose between
different alternatives and explores various criteria
for making this hoice.
126.96.36.199 COMMUNICATORS: We are all involved in a
communication system through our consumption
activities, whereby we communicate our roles and
188.8.131.52 IDENTITY SEEKERS: Searching to construct our
identity, our 'real selves;, through various
184.108.40.206 PLEASURE SEEKERS: Exploration of a few of the many
possibilities the market has to offer us, maybe in search of
a 'real kick of pleasure'.
220.127.116.11 VICTIMS: On the more serious side we may feel
victimised by fraudulent or harmful offerings, and
we may decide to take action against such risks
from the market place by becoming active in
18.104.22.168 REBEL: We may react against the authority of the producers by co-opting
their products, and turning them into something else, as when military
boots all of a sudden became 'normal' footwear for peaceful women.
22.214.171.124 ACTIVISTS: We may decide to take action as 'political
consumers' and boycott products from companies or countries
whose behaviour does not meet our ethical or environmental
5 It's a PROCESS
5.1 The EXCHANGE, in which two or more organisations or
people give and receive something of value, is an
integral part of marketing.
5.1.1 Early stage of development
5.1.2 Before, During and After
6 Market Segmentation
6.1 DEMOGRAPHICS: Statistics that measure observable aspects of a
population, such as birth rates, age distribution or income. Changes are of
great interest to marketers.
6.2 PSYCHOGRAPHIC: Hard to measure. differences in
consumers' personalities and tastes which can't be measured
6.3 GEOGRAPHIC: Region, and Country Differences.
6.4 BEHAVIOURAL: Brand loyalty, extent
to usage, usage situations and benefits
6.5 NEW SEGMENTS: The gay
community, single females and Disabled
6.5.1 IBM and NISSAN have used
disabled actors in their actors in
their advertising campaign.
7 Consumer Identity
7.1 Consumers use products to help
them define their identities.
7.2 A branded world
7.2.1 Relationships with brands: Marketers making an effort to keep in
touch with their customers on a regular basis, and are giving them
reasons to maintain a bond with the company over time. Many offer
services that are appreciated by their customers.
126.96.36.199 Self-concept attachment
188.8.131.52 Nostalgic Attachment
7.2.2 Brand Communities
184.108.40.206 Shared consciousness
7.3 Consumer Culture
7.3.1 Describes the current type of social
organisation in the economically-developed
7.3.2 Personal identities are mediated through consumption.
7.3.3 The core of consumer culture is that
consumption goes beyond solving practical
7.3.4 A way of creating meaningful
lives in the context of personal
identity and social relatioships.
7.3.5 Consumption, branding and marketing have
become some of the prime reflectors of current
values, norms and social roles.
7.3.6 Economy and cultures of consumption are
thus closely intertwined.
8 The Meaning of things
8.1 Significantly influenced by marketers
8.2 Surrounded by marketing stimuli
competing for our attention and our cash.
8.3 The meaning of consumption
8.3.1 Deeper meaning
of a product may
help it stand out
from similar goods.
8.3.2 Cultural symbols are very powerful
and product meanings are to some
8.4 Music, films, sports, books, celebrities and other forms
of entertainment consumed by the mass market, is both a
product of and an inspiration for marketers.
9 Postmodernism: It argues that we live in
a period where the modern order, with its
shared beliefs in certain central values of
modernism and industrialism, is breaking
9.1 HYPERREALITY: Becoming reality of what is
initially simulation or "hype". A person looses the
sense of what is real and what is fantasy. E.g. Las
9.2 CHRONOLOGY: Nostalgic search for the authentic and a
preoccupation with past. Retro-branding 'the revival or
re-launch of a brand from a prior historical period that differs
from nostalgic brands by the elements of updating'.
9.3 FRAGMENTATION: Ever-growing product ranges
and brand extensions in more and more specialised
variations. Identities are fragmented. E.g. Virtual
versus real identities.
9.4 DE-DIFFERENTIATION: Blurring boundaries
between hierarchies. E.g. Gender categories,
High and Low culture
9.5 PASTICHE: Playful and ironic mixing of
existing categories and styles is typical of
Questioning the foundations of
advertising (promoting a
10 Reversal of production and
10.1 Co-Creation of value
10.2 Consumer as a producer; not
target of products, but
produce of experiences.
10.3 Identity Projects: Consumer is
the marketer of her self image.
10.4 Consumer Literacy brings ability to control images.
10.5 Shift from passive to active consumer
10.6 DECENTRING OF THE SUBJECT:
Subject Centred versus Subject Decntred
10.7 PARADOXCAL JUXTAPOSTIONS: Dualism like
global-local-west, rural-urban, secular-religious,
modern-traditional are juxtaposed and hybrid forms emerge.
11 Two Perspective on Consumer Research
11.1 THE POSITIVIST PERSPECTIVE: Emphasizes the
objectivity of science and the consumer as a rational
11.2 THE INTERPRETIVIST PERSPECTIVE: Stresses the subjective meaning of
the consumer's individual experience and the idea that any behaviour is
subject to multiple interpretations rather than one single explanation.
12 The Global Consumer Culture
12.1 Globalisation as one of the most central in understanding the
development of consumer society. Should be considered as
12.1.1 Glocalization: All global phenomena exist and
become meaningful in a local context. E.g.
McDonald's restaurant has different meanings
to different roles for consumers when placed in
12.2 U-commerce is the use of ubiquitous networks that will slowly
but surely become a part of us, whether in the form of wearable
computers or customised advertisements beamed to us on our
12.3 The Politics of Consumption
12.3.1 Political Consumer: Who 'votes with their shopping basket' in an attempt to influence
companies to care for the natural as well as human environment, adding issues such as
human rights to the set of dimensions that influence purchases.
13 Consumer Protection
13.1 There are ten principles that help consumers rely on
their government for regulation, policy safety and
13.2 The Consumer DarkSide
13.2.1 Consumer Terrorism
13.2.2 Materialistically orientated consumption
13.2.3 Addictive Consumption
13.2.4 Consumed Consumer
13.2.5 Illegal activities
13.2.6 Compulsive Consumption
13.3 Deviant Consumer Behaviour
13.3.1 Compulsive Buying
13.3.2 Consumer Thefts: Black Markets
13.3.3 Addictive Consumption
13.3.4 Underage and Drug Use
14 Marketing's Impact on consumer
14.1 Do they create artificial needs?
14.1.1 Some conservative traditionalists believe
that advertising contributes to the moral
breakdown of society by presenting images
of hedonistic pleasure.
14.1.2 Some leftists argue that the same misleading
promises of material pleasure function to buy of
people who otherwise be revolutionaires working
to change the system.
14.2 Do marketers provide miracles?
14.2.1 The consumer will react in a
predefined way to certain stimuli.
14.2.2 We are all partly socialised by the
market and its messages.
14.2.3 Advertising changes patterns of consumption
14.3 Is advertising necessary?
14.3.1 Radio and TV is an important tool to
accomplish manipulation of the
14.3.2 Products are there to meet exisisting needs,
advertising only helps to communicate their