1.1 Victimised by society -
given no support,
treated as 'undeserving'
1.1.1 Anne-Marie forced to give
up her daughter
126.96.36.199 "A poor girl what's got into
trouble can't afford to pick and
choose" - dialect emphasises her
188.8.131.52 "How could you bear to give
your child away - to strangers?"
- Interrogative highlights Nora's
disbelief, dash adds emphasis to
the fact that she was forced to
give her child to people she
didn't know - Ibsen asking a
rhetorical question of the
audience, asking if this treatment
of the poor is right.
2 Hard Time - Dickens
2.1 Presented as good honest
people - challenging
2.1.1 Stephen shows loyalty to
other workers even after
they cast him out - won't tell
Bounderby about Trade
2.1.2 "I hope I never had nowt
to say not fitten for a born
lady to hear" - dignity/pride
among working class
2.1.3 Stephen is always kind
to his wife: "I were very
patient wi' her."
2.1.4 Stephen demonstrates
Christian Forgiveness by
forgiving Tom for throwing
suspicion on him
2.2 Presents the idea that
workers are being led
astray by union leaders
2.2.1 Slackbridge speaks in
hyperbole, makes him
seem ridiculous: "Slaves
of an iron-handed and
2.2.2 Slackbridge demonised: "Judas
Iscariot existed and Castlereagh
existed and this man exists."
2.2.3 Workers cast Stephen out -
something they wouldn't do without
2.3 Suggests that the problem is
the system not the people
2.3.1 Stephen trapped in an unhappy
marriage (institutions biased against
the working classes): "You'd have to
get an Act of Parliament to enable
you to marry again, and it would cost
2.3.2 Industrialisation inflicts
monotonous work on them,
allows them no imagination
184.108.40.206 "Fairy Palaces" (irony)
220.127.116.11 'Melancholy, mad
18.104.22.168 'The Hands' (metonymy -
reduces people to their
22.214.171.124 "Reg'latin 'em as if they
was figures in a soom or
machine" "wi'out souls to
weary and sould to hope."
126.96.36.199 'though the
tainted, the room
2.4 The urban poor are
shown no repect
2.4.1 Bounderby calls them
"pests of the earth" and
believes all they want is
"turtle soup and venison,
with a gold spoon."
2.5 Differences between the rich
and poor highlighted
2.5.1 Stephen = 'taking
nothing but a little bread'
vs Bounderby = 'at lunch
on chop and sherry'
2.5.2 "You are awlus right
and we are awlus
2.5.3 "great folk ...are not bonded
together for better or worse ...
they can be set free fro' their
3 Shirley - Charlotte
3.1 Illustrates common
views of Victorian
3.1.1 "domestics are in all countries a
spoiled unruly set." (hints at idea
of undeserving poor)
3.2 Criticises typical
of superiority towards
3.2.1 Working men seen as honourable - "I
can work, as Joe Scott does, for an
3.2.2 Harsh life of a tutor/governess
(neither part of the staff or the
family) - 'Louise Moore was a
satellite of the house of
Sympson: connected, yet
3.2.3 Dangers of treating the poor with
no respect: 'He knew when he
was misjudged and was apt to
turn unmanageable with such as
failed to give him his due.'
3.2.4 The pride of the rural poor similar
to that of the urban poor in Hard
Times: "I believe you would rather
have starved than gone to the
shops without money."
3.2.5 "I cannot help thinking it unjust
to include all poor working
people under the general and
insulting name of 'the mob' and
continually to think of them and
treat them haughtily."
3.2.6 The poor presented as honest
people vulnerable to being led astray
by manipulative leaders: 'men always
in debt and often in drink - men who
had nothing to lose, and much - in the
way of character. cash and
cleanliness to gain.'
3.2.7 William Farren described as: 'a
very honest man ... disposed to be
honourably content if he could but
get work to do.'
3.2.8 Shirley takes pleasure in charitable work:
'her seasonable bounty consoled many a
poor family against the coming holiday.'