Human-computer interface

Matthew Stentiford
Mind Map by , created over 2 years ago

KS4 ICT Mind Map on Human-computer interface, created by Matthew Stentiford on 04/27/2017.

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Matthew Stentiford
Created by Matthew Stentiford over 2 years ago
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Human-computer interface
1 Interfaces
1.1 Command line interface
1.1.1 User types instructions using special set of words/symbols
1.1.2 Used in the early stages of computing
1.1.2.1 only suitable for skilled ICT users as instructions must be known
1.1.3 quick exercution
1.2 Menu-driven interface
1.2.1 Menu of options displayed for the user to choose from
1.2.2 simple and user-friendly as the options do not have to be remembered
1.2.3 simple
1.3 Graphical user interface
1.3.1 Small pictures (icons) used to represent availble options
1.3.1.1 Microsoft windows
1.3.2 low level ICT
1.4 Voice interface
1.4.1 Microphone used to speak commands into the computer
1.4.1.1 analyses voice patterns and complies to instructions
1.4.2 disablities
1.5 Special devices
1.5.1 for the disabled/children
1.5.1.1 concept keyboards/touch sensitive screens/puff-suck switches
2 Other systems
2.1 on-screen help
2.1.1 context related help
2.1.2 old verions had annoying pop up context sensitive hep which was often turned off
2.2 EPOS interface
2.2.1 Data input through barcode reader
2.2.1.1 data pops up on screen and reciept is printed
2.3 Biometric
2.3.1 use physical factors such as fingerprints
2.3.1.1 high level of security but very expensive
2.3.1.1.1 analyses features to see if they match your features
2.4 Computer software
2.4.1 program is a set of instructions thta tells the computer what to do
2.4.1.1 systems software = programs that help the computer system work
2.4.1.1.1 Applications software = programs that perform special tasks/used for general purpose task (word processing)
3 Operating Systems
3.1 Loads and runs programs
3.1.1 maximises use of memory (RAM)
3.1.1.1 handles inputs and outputs
3.1.1.1.1 deals with interuptions
3.1.1.1.1.1 maintains system security
3.2 single-program systems
3.2.1 runs one program at a time, slow
3.2.2 Batch-processing systems
3.2.2.1 program with data needed = job
3.2.2.1.1 jobs are queued and are all processed together
3.2.2.1.1.1 used when there is no urgency for the job to be done
3.2.2.1.1.1.1 can be done at off-peak times/no human intervention needed
3.2.2.2 Multi-programming systems
3.2.2.2.1 Computer holds more than one program in its memory and gives each one a smal amount o processing in turn that makes it look like they are being processed all together
3.2.2.2.1.1 more programs are processed in less time
3.2.2.2.2 Multi-access
3.2.2.2.2.1 Mainframe computer has workstations spread out along differnt floors and levels
3.2.2.2.2.2 workstations connect interactively, each program is processed quickly and given the right resources
3.2.2.2.2.3 Distributed systems
3.2.2.2.2.3.1 processes and resources shared among connected computers
3.2.2.2.2.3.2 real time systems
3.2.2.2.2.3.2.1 Data processed as soon as inputted
3.2.2.2.2.3.2.1.1 sensors used to give data which is immediately processed and will take action if needed
3.2.2.2.2.3.2.1.1.1 Reacts fast to situations such as fires or flight simulators
3.2.2.2.2.3.2.2 Real-time transaction processing
3.2.2.2.2.3.2.2.1 item sold or booking made the data is processed immediately to take of stock record or add to database
3.2.2.2.2.3.2.2.2 Parallel-processing systems
3.2.2.2.2.3.2.2.2.1 large mainframes have more than one processor to speed up process time as large amounts of data come in at all times
3.2.2.2.2.3.2.2.2.2 Interactive systems
3.2.2.2.2.3.2.2.2.2.1 ATM requires the user to tell the computer what to do
3.2.2.2.2.3.2.2.2.2.2 Systems security
3.2.2.2.2.3.2.2.2.2.2.1 single user systems = protecting files of data
3.2.2.2.2.3.2.2.2.2.2.1.1 multi user systems = checks every username and password
3.2.2.2.2.3.2.2.2.2.2.1.1.1 keeps log of computer usage
3.2.2.2.2.3.2.2.2.2.2.1.1.1.1 backs up data
3.2.2.2.2.3.2.2.2.2.2.1.1.2 time/date of last time files were changed
3.2.2.2.2.3.2.2.2.2.2.1.1.2.1 sets files to read only
3.2.2.2.2.3.2.2.2.2.2.1.1.2.1.1 deleted files are put in recycling bin
3.2.2.2.2.3.2.2.2.2.2.1.1.2.1.1.1 can recover accidentaly deleted data

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