OCR AS Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

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Mind Map on OCR AS Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells, created by kin034 on 05/14/2014.

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Created by kin034 over 5 years ago
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OCR AS Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
1 Prokaryotic Cells
1.1 Much smaller - <5um
1.2 no membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria, ER and chloroplasts
1.3 surrounded by peptidoglycan cell walls
1.3.1 made of murein
1.4 ribosomes are far smaller at 20nm in diamter
1.5 DNA is in the form of a single loop
1.6 the general area in which plasmid DNA is found is called the nucleoid
1.7 ATP is produced in mesosomes - infolded regions on the CSM
1.8 some have flagella which use ATP to rotate a disc at the base attached by a hook to the spiral protein
1.9 cell division by binary fission
1.10 thick capsule layer made of polysaccharides
1.11 Gram-negative bacteria have two membranes - the peptidoglycan layer is thinner but outside it is a thin layer of lipoprotein and then a second outer membrane made of lipopolysaccharides.
1.12 no cytoskeleton
2 Eukaryotic
2.1 Around 30nm in diameter
2.2 Contain linear chromosomes, and the DNA is associated with histones
2.3 some have undulipodia which consist of a cylinder of 9 microtubules with two in the middle - use ATP
2.4 most contain two copies of each gene - diploid
2.5 always have a cytoskeleton
2.6 distinct nucleus surrounded by a nuclear envelope. Chromatin is found inside the nucleus which condenses into chromosomes during DNA replication
2.7 plant cells have cell walls made of cellulose, pectin and hemicellulose

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