1.1 Triglycerides(Fats) are a kind of lipid. A
triglyceride is made of 1 molecule of
GLYCEROL, with 3 FATTY ACIDS attached to
it. These fatty acids have long tails made of
hydrocarbon chains. These tails are
HYDROPHOBIC, and make lipids INSOLUBLE.
1.1.1 All these tails are the same and have the same
basic structure With a different hydrocarbon tail.
Represented by the letter R. An O (with a double
bond) and a OH connected to a C atom. Which
its self connects to the variable R group
1.2 They are formed by CONDENSATION
REACTIONS, broken up by HYDROLYSIS
REACTIONS. Three fatty acids and a single
glycerol are joined together by an ESTER
1.2.1 A HYDROGEN atom on the glycerol molecule
binds to the HYDROXYL (OH) group on the fatty
acid releasing a water molecule. Hydrolysis is
the reverse of this, a molecule of water is added
to each of the ESTER BONDS, in order to break
it and split the triglyceride into fatty acids and a
2.1 Saturated lipids have no double bonds within the
hydrocarbon chain, whereas unsaturated lipids have a
double bond. This causes the kink, and a molecule
with more than one double bond, is polyunsaturated.
2.1.1 Saturated lipids are most commonly found in animal
fats, unsaturated lipids are most common in plants,
such as olive oil. Unsaturated lipids also melt at lower
temperatures than saturated ones, that's why margerine
is easier to spread than butter!