Classification & Diagnosis of phobias

Brendan Williams
Mind Map by Brendan Williams, updated more than 1 year ago
Brendan Williams
Created by Brendan Williams about 6 years ago
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Mindmap for AQA-A psychology unit 4 classification & diagnosis of phobias

Resource summary

Classification & Diagnosis of phobias
1 Clinical characteristics
1.1 Diagnosis
1.1.1 Fear persistent & excessive
1.1.2 Phobic stimulus causes an immediate response
1.1.3 Individual is aware their fear is irrational
1.1.4 Phobia interferes with daily life
1.1.5 Phobia has existed for more than 6 months
1.2 DSM & ICD used for classification
1.2.1 3 types of phobia
1.2.1.1 Specific phobia - fear of an object
1.2.1.2 Social phobia - fear of a social situation
1.2.1.3 Agoraphobia - fear of situations where escape may be difficult/open spaces
2 Reliability
2.1 Reliability - the consistency of a measuring instrument
2.2 Inter-rater reliability - how consistent different clinicians diagnosis is
2.2.1 Skyre et al - three clinicians assessed 54 patients using the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID-I) Inter-rater agreement +.72
2.2.1.1 semi-structured interview - extensive training
2.2.2 Kendler et al - low retest reliability due to poor recall or exaggeration of fears
2.2.2.1 May also be due to different clinicians seeing different things as significant
2.3 Test-retest reliability - used to check external reliability. Same test given on different occasions
2.3.1 Hiller et al - satisfactory - exellent diagnosis agreement in test-retest using Munich Diagnostic Checklist (MDC)
3 Validity
3.1 Validity - extent that a diagnosis represents something real & distinct
3.1.1 Research requires high validity assessment methods else the findings will have low validity
3.2 Comorbidity decreases usefulness of diagnostic categories
3.2.1 Kendler et al - high comorbidity between social phobias & animal phobias
3.2.2 Eyesenk - up to 66% diagnosed with one anxiety disorder have another
3.3 Concurrent validity - measures the validity of a classification method comparing it to an existing one
3.3.1 Taijn-kyofusho (TKS) Japanese phobia of embarrassing someone in public. Not a British phobia. Cultural differences
3.4 Construct validity - sees if individuals with key behaviours are diagnosed as phobic
3.4.1 Someone with social phobia underestimates their social ability
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