The results of the Cuban Missile Crisis

jacksearle
Mind Map by jacksearle, updated more than 1 year ago
jacksearle
Created by jacksearle almost 7 years ago
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A-Levels Cold War (The Arms Race) Mind Map on The results of the Cuban Missile Crisis, created by jacksearle on 05/18/2014.

Resource summary

The results of the Cuban Missile Crisis
  1. The consequences for the leaders
    1. Kennedy
      1. Crisis gave him a much needed foreign policy success - which strengthened his presidency - To avoid humiliating Soviets he sensibly ordered 'no boasting, no gloating, not even a claim of victory'
        1. Could claim to have removed the Soviet threat from the USA's 'backyard' and to have prevented a superpower nuclear exchange
          1. 10 days after crisis - Kennedy reaped domestic political rewards in US Congressional elections - Democrats won their biggest majority in the Senate for 20 years
            1. He pledged to not removed Castro from Cuba - hence accepted that, for the foreseeable future, Cuba would be communist
              1. Kennedy secretly agreed to remove missiles from Turkey - decision taken without knowledge of Turkish govt was not revealed to public until 1968
              2. Khrushchev
                1. Could claim credit for safeguarding Castro's regime by obtaining the US pledge not to invade Cuba - Called this 'a spectacular success' which was achieved 'without having to fire a single shot'
                  1. Could also argue that Soviet action in Cuba had removed the US missiles in Turkey
                    1. Ultimately - Khrushchev chose peace over brinkmanship but the Soviet descent in October 1962 couldn't be disguised
                      1. Soviet military never forgave him - saw it as a humiliating failure and this was a key factor in Khrushchev's removal from office in 1964
                    2. The easing of tension in 1963
                      1. CMC had brought superpowers to brink of nuclear war
                        1. In aftermath - both sides recognised that confidence-building measures were needed to reduce tensions in crisis situations and to limit likelihood of nuclear war
                          1. Within a year - superpowers had signed 2 important initiatives which helped to achieve this
                      2. The 'hot-line' agreement June 1963
                        1. CMC had highlighted need for rapid communication between the superpowers
                          1. As a result - 'hot-line' telegraph link was set up between the Whitehouse and the Kremlin
                            1. So that in crisis times - leaders could contact eachother immediately to hold discussions
                              1. Aim - to ensure that any misjudgements or misunderstandings could be resolved before a serious crisis developed
                                1. Nixon and Brezhnev used the 'hot-line' in 1971 during the India-Pakistan War
                        2. The Nuclear Test Ban Treaty August 1963
                          1. By October 58 - both superpowers - aware of the positive publicity value - began a voluntary suspension on nuclear tests which lasted almost 3 years
                            1. During this period - formal agreement couldn't be reached as the USSR rejected US demands for rigorous 'on-site' inspections
                            2. August 1961 - USSR resumed atmospheric tests
                              1. USA followed suit with new round of underground and atmospheric tests
                                1. Sobering impact of CMC led the 2 and Britain to sign the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty 1963
                                  1. Banned them from conducting nuclear tests in the atmosphere, underwater or in space - Underground testing still permitted
                            3. The beginnings of détente
                              1. Restrained by the experience of the CMC - superpowers made greater efforts to avoid direct confrontation in the future
                                1. Superpowers only just avoided nuclear war in October 1962 - both sides were keen to establish better relations
                                  1. Led to a period of superpower détente which reached a high point int he 1970s
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