An unequal friendship: Sino-Soviet relations 1949-1950

jacksearle
Mind Map by jacksearle, updated more than 1 year ago
jacksearle
Created by jacksearle almost 6 years ago
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A-Levels Cold War (Sino Soviet Relations) Mind Map on An unequal friendship: Sino-Soviet relations 1949-1950, created by jacksearle on 05/18/2014.

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An unequal friendship: Sino-Soviet relations 1949-1950
1 The People's Republic of China 1949
1.1 October 1st 1949 - Mao announced creation of the PRC
1.1.1 PRC was created following a communist win in the bitter civil war
1.1.1.1 Creation of PRC altered the balance of Cold War power
1.1.1.1.1 Officially - Russia was the first state to recognise Mao's govt and quickly signed a treaty of friendship with China
1.1.1.1.1.1 Whereas the US was horrified that communism triumphed China - consequently US policy in South-East Asia changed dramatically
2 The Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance Feb 1950
2.1 Reasons for the treaty
2.1.1 PRC was isolated from West because it was a communist state
2.1.1.1 However - there was an obvious ideological similarity between China and Russia
2.1.1.1.1 Indeed - Mao described USSR as ' our best teacher from whom we must learn'
2.1.1.1.1.1 late 1949 - M traveled to Moscow for face-to-face talks with Stalin - in search of a powerful ally
2.1.1.1.1.1.1 Stalin had less to gain - but in aftermath of WW2 - Russian economy needed rebuilding - establishing a new trading partner was in USSR's interest
2.2 Terms of the treaty
2.2.1 Friendship
2.2.1.1 USSR granted the following aid to China
2.2.1.1.1 A loan of $300 million
2.2.1.1.2 Equipment for 50 major construction projects
2.2.2 Alliance
2.2.2.1 Established a military alliance against 'Japanese militarism'
2.2.2.1.1 By which it meant capitalist nations
2.2.2.1.1.1 Included guarantee that USSR would come to China's aid if it was involved in conflicts with any capitalist nation
2.2.3 Mutual Assistance
2.2.3.1 USSR agreed to trade and share knowledge:
2.2.3.1.1 set up a joint stock company to mine in Xinjiang
2.2.3.1.2 Soviet experts helped to set up and run 141 Chinese businesses
2.2.3.1.3 China recognised USSR's rights over Outer Mongolia
2.2.3.1.4 USSR returned the Manchurian railway to China
3 Significance of the Treaty - the Impact on China
3.1 Treaty allowed China to begin economic modernisation
3.1.1 There was a 6-fold increase in Sino Soviet trade 1950-1956
3.1.2 By 1956 - 60% of Chinese trade was conducted with USSR
3.1.3 USSR educated 9313 Chinese experts in top Russian unis
3.1.4 Over 38000 Chinese workers were given vocational training in Siberia
4 Creation of the China Lobby in the USA
4.1 Proclamation of PRC sent shockwaves through USA - leading to change in US policy
4.1.1 Prior to PRC - USA had been disengaging from South-East Asia
4.1.1.1 A govt paper published Aug 1949 stated that USA had no strategic interest in China
4.1.1.1.1 Moreover, as late as Jan 50 - US secretary of state announced that US had no plans to offer Korea or Taiwan protection from Communism
4.1.1.1.1.1 Treaty of friendship changed this - led to emergence of the 'China Lobby'
4.1.1.1.1.1.1 Republicans and Democrats associated with the lobby were obsessed with the question 'Who lost China?'
4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Believed that Truman hadn't done enough to ensure survival of Pro-Western China and that the Sino-Soviet alliance gave USSR new advantage in the Cold War
4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 In this way - Treaty led to renewed interest in China from the USA
5 Impact on US government policy
5.1 In response to China Lobby - Truman changed policy - announcing series of measures designed to stop the spread of communism in South East Asia
5.1.1 By mid-1950 the US had agreed to the following
5.1.1.1 Military support for Taiwan - US dispatched its 7th fleet to the Taiwan Strait to discourage Chinese invasion
5.1.1.2 Military aid for the Philippines - in mid 1950 - US agreed support for the Philippine government against communist revolutionaries
5.1.1.3 Military and financial support for the French - who were battling communism in Vietnam
5.1.1.4 Aid and Support for South Korea - as North Korea were communist and US govt feared that it was planning to invade the South
5.1.1.5 More generally - loss of China persuaded US govt that they hadn't done enough to retain the initiative in the Cold War
5.1.1.5.1 Consequently - NSC-68 - outlined a more active role for USA in fighting communism in the Cold War
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