Short term Physiological Preparation

Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

(PE A level) Mind Map on Short term Physiological Preparation, created by JCL on 05/15/2013.

Created by JCL over 6 years ago
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Short term Physiological Preparation
1 Responses are changes that occur quickly, and are temporary
2 adaptations take longer to occur, and are more permanent – at least until the environment changes.
3 synergy two or more separate influences or agents acting together to create an effect greater than that of the separate parts
3.1 These factors include: • physical conditioning • the fuel required • the environment in which they are to perform • the clothing they need to wear • the duration of their event • the role they must perform.
4 The Warm up!
4.1 What are you attempting to achieve from a warm-up? • what are your objectives? • is it possible to achieve these objectives? • what activities will need to be done to ensure your objectives are achieved?
4.2 Stages of a warm up!
4.2.2 STAGE 3: SKILL PRACTICE This next stage of a warm-up should involve a skill-related component, where the neuromuscular mechanisms related to the activity
4.2.3 STAGE 4: SPORT-SPECIFIC Often included with the previous part of the warm-up (skill practice), this phase includes practising specific skills
4.2.4 STAGE 2: INJURY PREVENTION Now that muscle temperature has been raised, the athlete can perform some mobility exercises.
4.3 Why warm up!
4.3.1 The objectives of a warm-up are to: • prepare the body both physiologically and mentally for performance • improve performance • reduce the risk of injury.
4.4 Effects of a warm up
4.4.1 increase in Heart rate, Vasodilation* of some blood vessels, increase in Stroke volume*, Vasoconstriction* of some blood vessels, increase in Cardiac output*, Vascular shunting* and increase in End-diastolic volume*
5 Key terms - cardiac output - the volume of blood pumped by the left ventricle in one minute end-diastolic volume the volume of blood in the heart at the end of filling (diastole) stroke volume the volume of blood pumped by the left ventricle of the heart in one contraction sympathetic nervous system the link between the cardiac acceleratory system and the heart, that results in an increase in heart rate thermoregulation the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries vascular shunting the process of directing blood to where it is most needed vasoconstriction narrowing of the blood vessels vasodilation widening of the blood vessels venous return the flow of blood back to the right atrium of the heart ventilation rate the rate at which gas enters or leaves the lung
6 Stretching
6.1 Stretching is often used to increase the elasticity of muscle and connective tissue. This increases the range of movement at a joint, and so improves the flexibility of the joint and of the athlete.
6.1.1 Static stretching is what many people consider to be ‘traditional’ stretching. As the name suggests, there is a lack of movement. The performer stretches a muscle to its safe limit and then holds that position for up to 30 seconds, relaxes and repeats.
6.1.2 Dynamic stretching consists of controlled movements taking the joint through its full range of movement.
6.1.3 Ballistic stretching also involves movement, but unlike dynamic stretching, this method uses momentum or bouncing to help forcibly stretch the muscle.
6.1.4 PNF - It involves passive stretching followed by isometric contractions of the muscle group being targeted.

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