1 Responses are
changes that occur
quickly, and are
2 adaptations take longer to
occur, and are more
permanent – at least until the
3 synergy two or more
separate influences or
agents acting together to
create an effect greater than
that of the separate parts
3.1 These factors include: • physical conditioning • the fuel required • the
environment in which they are to perform • the clothing they need to wear •
the duration of their event • the role they must perform.
4 The Warm up!
4.1 What are you attempting to achieve from
a warm-up? • what are your objectives? •
is it possible to achieve these objectives?
• what activities will need to be done to
ensure your objectives are achieved?
4.2 Stages of a warm up!
4.2.1 STAGE 1: INITIAL PREPARATION:
GROSS MOTOR SKILLS AND
PULSE-RAISER Gross motor skills begin
4.2.2 STAGE 3: SKILL PRACTICE This next stage of a warm-up
should involve a skill-related component, where the
neuromuscular mechanisms related to the activity
4.2.3 STAGE 4: SPORT-SPECIFIC Often
included with the previous part of the
warm-up (skill practice), this phase
includes practising specific skills
4.2.4 STAGE 2: INJURY PREVENTION Now that muscle
temperature has been raised, the athlete can perform
some mobility exercises.
4.3 Why warm up!
4.3.1 The objectives of a warm-up are to: • prepare the
body both physiologically and mentally for
performance • improve performance • reduce the risk
4.4 Effects of a warm up
4.4.1 increase in Heart rate, Vasodilation* of some blood vessels,
increase in Stroke volume*, Vasoconstriction* of some blood
vessels, increase in Cardiac output*, Vascular shunting* and increase in
5 Key terms - cardiac output - the volume of blood pumped by the left ventricle in one minute
end-diastolic volume the volume of blood in the heart at the end of filling (diastole) stroke volume
the volume of blood pumped by the left ventricle of the heart in one contraction sympathetic
nervous system the link between the cardiac acceleratory system and the heart, that results in an
increase in heart rate thermoregulation the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature
within certain boundaries vascular shunting the process of directing blood to where it is most
needed vasoconstriction narrowing of the blood vessels vasodilation widening of the blood
vessels venous return the flow of blood back to the right atrium of the heart ventilation rate the
rate at which gas enters or leaves the lung
6.1 Stretching is often used to increase the elasticity of muscle and connective tissue. This increases the range
of movement at a joint, and so improves the flexibility of the joint and of the athlete.
6.1.1 Static stretching is what many people consider to be
‘traditional’ stretching. As the name suggests, there is a
lack of movement. The performer stretches a muscle to
its safe limit and then holds that position for up to 30
seconds, relaxes and repeats.
6.1.2 Dynamic stretching consists of
controlled movements taking the joint
through its full range of movement.
6.1.3 Ballistic stretching also involves movement, but
unlike dynamic stretching, this method uses
momentum or bouncing to help forcibly stretch
6.1.4 PNF - It involves passive stretching
followed by isometric contractions of the
muscle group being targeted.