Goal-setting is important for all people, not only
those directly involved in sport and physical
activities. Goals need to be agreed, which involves
discussions between athletes and coaches, between
team members, and between sports psychologists
1 Why? benefits?
1.1 Allows the performer to plan training and
1.2 Motivates the performer.
1.3 Helps the performer reduce anxiety and control
1.4 Builds self-confidence and increases effectiveness.
2 Goal setting structure - SMARTER principle
2.1 Agreed – goals should be discussed
and agreed with others.
2.2 Realistic – goals must be genuine and not
beyond the scope of the performer
2.3 Setting times within which
goals should be achieved is
sensible, but should not be
2.4 Exciting – goals need to
provide the performer with a
stimulus to progress and
2.5 Recorded – by recording their goals and creating a
pathway for development
2.6 Measurable – goals need to be
assessed through formal processes;
2.7 Specific – goals should be clear and concise.
3 Types of Goals
3.1 subjective goals – general statements of
intent that are not stated in measurable terms,
such as ‘I want to play well’
3.2 objective goals – statements that focus on
attaining a specific standard of proficiency,
usually within a specified time.
4 Types of Goals
4.1 Outcome goals – are concerned with an end product
and are conditioned by specific successes
4.2 Performance goals – relate directly to the achievement of a
4.3 Process goals – are centred on the technical elements that
underpin a performance as a focus for development.
4.4 Short-term goals – the building blocks or stepping stones that need to
be achieved consistently, leading to the successful realisation of
4.5 Long-term goals – have a larger objective and can only be achieved over
time through the use and completion of short-term objectives.
5 three basic strategies for goal-setting:
5.1 planning and preparation – agree set
goals through discussion and analysis
5.2 education and acquisition – in
order to research the most
effective ways to set your goals
5.3 implementation and follow-up – record the goals
and time frame, and set in motion a process of
evaluation and review.
6 factors will influence a performer’s
success in achieving their goals.
6.1 The goals you set
are unrealistic and
6.2 You set too many
goals, and conflict
6.3 The goals set are beyond your control.
6.4 The review and evaluation process is
ad hoc, and not related to the overall
6.5 Outcome goals have overtaken
performance and process goals.