Crude Oil, Alkanes and Alkenes

Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Cambridge IGCSE Chemistry (Year 10) Mind Map on Crude Oil, Alkanes and Alkenes, created by gdrake91 on 05/15/2013.

Created by gdrake91 over 6 years ago
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Crude Oil, Alkanes and Alkenes
1 Crude Oil
1.1 Mixture of many compunds
1.2 Mainly made of hydrocarbons
1.3 Hydrocarbons contain only hydrogen and Carbon
1.4 Most of the hydrocarbons are Alkanes
2 Alkanes
2.1 Alkanes are a family of simple hydrocarbons
2.2 Alkanes are always covalently bonded
2.3 General Formula for Alkanes is: C n H 2n+2
2.4 Have no double bonds
2.5 Saturated Molecules, have the maximum possible single bonds
2.6 Isomers of Alkanes are exactly the same except that their structure is different
2.7 Burning Alkanes
2.7.1 Burn in oxygen or react with Halogens
2.7.2 In complete combustion it produces Carbon Dioxide and Water
2.7.3 In incomplete combustion it produces Carbon(as soot), Carbon Monoxide and water
2.8 Reacting with Halogens
2.8.1 An alkane will react with a halogen in the presence of UV light A substitution reaction occurs
2.8.2 A substitution reaction is when the Halogen replaces the Hydrogen in the hydrocarbon E.g. Methane + Bromine => Bromomethane + Hydrogen Bromide
2.9 The first five Alkanes are:
2.9.1 Methane CH4
2.9.2 Ethane C2H6
2.9.3 Propane C3H8
2.9.4 Butane C4H10
2.9.5 Pentane C5H12
3 Cracking
3.1 The process of breaking large alkanes into smaller ones
3.2 Performed by passing the alkane over a hot Aluminium Oxide Catalyst
3.3 Cracking an Alkane produces an Alkene
3.4 E.g. Cracking Propane would produce Propene
4 Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil
4.1 Crude Oil is heated before entering the Fractionating Column
4.2 The Fractionating Column has a temperature gradient
4.2.1 Hottest at the bottom, Coolest at the top
4.3 Heavier hydrocarbons remain at the bottom, lighter ones rise
4.4 The height a hydrocarbon reaches corresponds to the temperature in the column at which it can be condensed
4.5 Crude Oil contains more of the heavier, less useful alkanes
4.5.1 Larger alkanes can be converted into smaller ones via cracking
5 Alkenes
5.1 Created by cracking alkanes
5.2 General formula is 2n+2
5.3 Can be turned into polymers by addition polymerisation

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