Laura Roche
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Sociology Mind Map on RELIGION, created by Laura Roche on 05/15/2013.

Laura Roche
Created by Laura Roche over 6 years ago
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1 Religion in a global context
1.1 Religion and economic development
1.1.1 Webb et al- globalisation= rationality= less religion
1.1.2 Religion and economic growth are compatable Nanda- UltraNationalism in India and Hinduism Redding- The spirit of Chinese Capitalism Berger- Pentecostalism in Latin America Lehmann- global and local impact of Pentecostalism
1.2 Religious Fundamentalism
1.2.1 Giddens- Cosmopolitanism
1.2.2 Castells- 2 types of Fundamentalists- reject and project identity
1.2.3 Bruce- Monotheism and Fundamentalism
1.2.4 Evaluation (A02)- Haynes; shouldn't narrowly focus on Islamic Fundamentalism (A02)- Beckford 1. distinguish too sharply between Cosmapolitanism and Fundamentalists. 2. 'fixated Fundamnetalism' 3. Lumps all types of Fudamentalism together
1.3 Cultural Defence
1.3.1 Bruce- examples of Poland and Iran
1.4 Religion and the clash of civilisations
1.4.1 Huntongton- sees global conflicts as intensified by the collapse of communism (A02)- Jackson; Huntington's work is based on Orientalism- stereotypes (A02)- Horrie and Chipingdale- generalises too much (A02)- Inglehart and Norris- sexuality is the main cause of cultural divide
2 Theories of religion
2.1 Definitions
2.1.1 Substantive (Weber), Functional (Durkheim) and Social Constructionist (Aldridge)
2.2 Functionalists
2.2.1 (A01) Durkheim- collective conscience, sacred and profane and totemism
2.2.2 (A02) Worsley Durkheim is overly positive
2.2.3 Other functions- (A01) Parsons- values and meaning Mauss- conceptualisation and categorisation Malinowski- psychological funtions Bellah- civil religions
2.3 Marxists
2.3.1 Karl Marx (A01)- Mechanism of social control
2.3.2 Bruce- (A02- positive) New Christian Right
2.3.3 (A02) Criticisms Althusser- alienation/ view is unscientific and romantic Hamilton- only gives uses of religion- no specific defintion
2.4 Feminists
2.4.1 (A01) Means of oppression Religious organisations-Armstrong Sacred Texts Religious Laws and Customs- Woodhead Places of Worship- Holm (A01) Other Feminist resarch Woodhead- Muslim veil as a symbol of liberaion in the public and private sphere Watson- interviews with 3 Muslim women El Saadawi- male interpretation and female genital mutilation
2.4.2 (A02) evaluation Marxists- conservative, oppressive force upon WC- class not gender focused Functionalists- consensus theory Different Feminist views- Radical Feminists; Daly Post Modernism- change is possible eg: ordination of women
3 Religion and Social change
3.1 Religion a a conservative force
3.1.1 Functionalists, Marxists and Feminists
3.2 Weber- religion as a souce for change
3.2.1 (A01)- Asceticism, this worldly orientation, capitalism
3.2.2 (A02) Kautsky- overestimates the role of ideas & underestimates economic factors Tawney-Technological factors Marshall- Switzerland & lack of investment
3.3 Religion and social protest
3.3.1 Bruce- The Civil Rights Movement
3.3.2 (A02)- New Christian Right
3.4 Marxism, religion and change
3.4.1 Maduro- Liberation Theology
3.4.2 Engels & Bloch- Religion's dual character
3.4.3 Gramsci- Hegemony
4 Secularisation
4.1 Secularisation in Britain
4.1.1 Church attendance figures- Davie; believing without belonging
4.2 Explanations of secularisation
4.2.1 Functionalism Durkheim- growth of individualism undermines CC
4.2.2 Marxism Introduction of socialism=SEC.
4.2.3 Weber- rationalisation and disenchantment
4.2.4 Parsons- Structural Differentiation
4.2.5 Bruce- technologcal Worldview
4.2.6 Bruce- social and cultural diversity (A02)- Aldridge; Pentecostalists
4.2.7 Berger- religious diversity (A02)- Beckford- diversity doesnt inevitably lead to SEC.
4.3 Secularisation in America
4.3.1 Wilson- 45% churchgoers in 1965
4.3.2 Bruce- 3 examples
4.4 Evaluation of Secularisation
4.4.1 Church attendance figures
4.4.2 Lyon- Re-enchantment of the world
4.4.3 Bruce- cultural defence and transition
4.4.4 Heelas and Woodhead- Kendal project & spiritual revolution
4.4.5 Fundamentalism- Kepel and Islam
5 Religion, renewal and choice
5.1 Post Modernity and Religion
5.1.1 Davie- beliveing without belonging (A02)- Bibby; Canadian survey (A02)- Voas and Crockett- reject (A02)- Bruce; support
5.1.2 Hervieu- Leger- Cultural Amnesia and Spiritual Shopping
5.1.3 Lyon 1. The relocation of religion 2. Religious Consumerism- 'pick and mix' & hyperreality 3. Re-Enchantment of the world (A02)- Lyon;s research isnt extensive (A02)- Bruce supports
5.2 Existential security Theory
5.2.1 Norris and Inglehart (A02) Gill and Lundegaarde- support (A02)- Vasquez- criticises quantitative data
5.3 Religious market theory
5.3.1 Stark and Bainbridge- SEC= constant cycle of revival and renewal (A02)- Beckford; unsociable as it assumes people are religious
6 Ideology and Science
6.1 Science as a belief system
6.1.1 (A01)- Comte; chronological stages of belief 1. The theological stage 2. the metaphysical stage 3. The Positive stage
6.1.2 Popper- Falsification
6.1.3 Merton- CUDOS norms
6.1.4 Horton- closed belief systems support- Pritchard; Azande tribe Kuhn- closed belief systems- science is socially constructed Woolgar-science is subjective
6.2 Ideology
6.2.1 (Marxism) Mannheim- Ideological throught and Utopian thought Gramsci- Working class ideology will overthrow Capitalism and end hegemony (A02)- Marxism assumes people are passive
6.2.2 Ideology and Feminism Marks- female exclusion from education (A02)- Feminism itself is an ideology
7 Organisations, movements and members
7.1 Types of religious organisations
7.1.1 Wallis- 3 types of NRMs (A02)- Stark and Bainbridge
7.2 Explaining the growth of religious movements
7.2.1 3 main reasons for the trend in NRMs 1. Marginality- Troeltsh/Weber/Wallis 2. Relative deprivation- Glock and Stark 3. Social Change- Wilson, Bellah, Bruce ALSO- disenchantment of the world (Weber), status frustration, Wallis
7.2.2 Reasons NRMs are short lived- Barker/Aldridge
7.2.3 Post Modernity & New Age Drane- answers away from meta-narratives Heelas and Woodhead- Kendal Project Bruce- argues New Age is late stage of modernity not PM Heelas- sees the New Age and Modern society linked in 4 ways
7.2.4 The growth and Characteristics of the New Age Heelas- 2 common themes; self-spirituality and detraditionalisation Other Explanations Aldridge- sects can become denominations Wilson- denomination or death of a sect is not only option Stark and Bainbridge- The Sectarian cycle
7.3 Religiosity and social groups
7.3.1 Gender Bruce- twice as many women in sects Miller and Hoffman- socialisation and gender role Stark and Bainbridge- compensation for deprivation Brown- New Age responds to female's want for autonomy Heelas and Woodhead- women of the New Age; 80% women in Holistic Milieu
7.3.2 Ethnicity Bruce/ Bird- cultural defence Herberg/Modood- cultural transition Johal- social identity
7.3.3 Age Lynch- expanded spiritual marketplace Davie- the privatisation of religion 2 main explanations- Ageing and the generational effect Gill- religion not longer taught

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