1. Leadership in the Public Services

colinmillar
Mind Map by colinmillar, updated 11 months ago
colinmillar
Created by colinmillar almost 6 years ago
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Mind Map on 1. Leadership in the Public Services, created by colinmillar on 05/24/2014.

Resource summary

1. Leadership in the Public Services
1 Definition of Leadership
1.1 Leadership is a process whereby intentional influence is exerted by 1 person (or a group) over other people to structure the activities and relationships in a group or organisation
2 Management vs Leadership
2.1 Leadership one aspect of Management
2.1.1 Mintzberg
2.1.2 Interpersonal skills:
2.1.2.1 Figurehead
2.1.2.1.1 Leadership
2.1.2.1.1.1 Liaison
2.1.3 Information skills:
2.1.3.1 Monitor
2.1.3.1.1 Disseminator
2.1.3.1.1.1 Spokesperson
2.1.4 Decisional roles:
2.1.4.1 Entrepreneur
2.1.4.1.1 Disturbance handler
2.1.4.1.1.1 Resource allocator
2.1.4.1.1.1.1 Negotiator
2.2 Management/Leadership differences:
2.2.1 Manager:
2.2.1.1 administers
2.2.1.1.1 maintains
2.2.1.1.1.1 systems & structures
2.2.1.1.1.1.1 relies on control
2.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 bottom line
2.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 does things right
2.2.2 Leader:
2.2.2.1 innovates
2.2.2.1.1 develops
2.2.2.1.1.1 focus on people
2.2.2.1.1.1.1 inspires trust
2.2.2.1.1.1.1.1 eye on the horizon
2.2.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 does the right things
2.2.3 Hollingsworth
2.3 Subordinate goals
2.3.1 Structure
2.3.2 Strategy
2.3.3 System
2.3.4 Skills
2.3.5 Staff
2.3.6 Style
2.3.7 McKinsey Seven S Framework
2.3.8 LEADERSHIP RELY ON:
2.3.9 MANAGEMENT RELY ON:
2.3.9.1 Watson
2.4 Bases of Power:
2.4.1 Reward Power

Annotations:

  • based on the subordinate's perception that the leader has the ability to control rewards that the followers are looking for
2.4.1.1 Coercive Power

Annotations:

  • Based on fear & the subordinate's perception that the leader has the ability to punish or to cause an unpleasant experience for those who do not comply
2.4.1.1.1 Referent Power

Annotations:

  • Based on the subordinate's identification with the leader
2.4.1.1.1.1 Expert Power

Annotations:

  • Based on the subordinate having the perception that the leader is someone who has access to information & relevant power
2.4.1.1.1.1.1 Legitimate Power

Annotations:

  • Based on authority and not on personal power
2.4.2 French & Duncan
3 Leadership traits:
3.1 Strong drive for responsibility
3.1.1 Focus on task completion
3.1.1.1 Vigour and persistence in the pursuit of goals
3.1.1.1.1 Venturesomeness & originality in problem solving
3.1.1.1.1.1 Drive to exercise initiative in social settings
3.1.1.1.1.1.1 Self confidence
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Sense of personal identity
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Willingness to accept consequences of decisions and actions
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Readiness to absorb interpersonal stress
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Willingness to tolerate frustration & delay
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Ability to influence behaviour of others
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Capacity to structure social systems to the purpose at hand
3.2 Stogdill
3.3 Better than average on:
3.3.1 Ability
3.3.1.1 Sociability
3.3.1.1.1 Motivation
4 Leadership Style & Behaviour Theory
4.1 Management & Leadership style is influenced by the persons' assumptions about human nature
4.2 McGregor's Theory X/Y
4.3 Theory X:
4.3.1 Negative view on human nature
4.3.1.1 Worker not motivated to work, doesn't want to be there
4.3.1.1.1 Coercion & control the only way to get people to work hard
4.4 Theory Y:
4.4.1 Positive view on human nature
4.4.1.1 Workers will actively seek responsibility
4.4.1.1.1 Leadership style one of encouragement & facilitation, encouraging creativity & innovation
4.5 Likert
4.6 Production centred
4.6.1 Leader pays close attention to work of subordinates
4.7 Employee centred
4.7.1 Leader is interested in developing cohesive working groups & ensuring that employees are satisfied
4.8 LBDQ

Annotations:

  • Leadership Behaviour Description Questionnaire
4.9 Structure Behaviour
4.9.1 Formal lines of communication & control, leader determines how tasks are performed
4.10 Consideration Behaviour
4.10.1 Leaders shows concern for their subordinates, warm supportive climate
4.11 Blake
4.12 Contingency Theory
4.12.1 No single leadership style that is correct for every situation, for every leader, in all circumstances
4.12.1.1 Fielder
4.12.1.2 Least-preferred co-worker scale to identify style of leader
4.12.1.2.1 High score=people oriented
4.12.1.2.1.1 Low score=task oriented
4.12.2 Proposed that leader has to adapt style to suit situation, and success of leader was related to knowledge of the maturity level of employees
4.12.2.1 4 levels of maturity:
4.12.2.1.1 Unable and unwilling
4.12.2.1.2 Unable and willing
4.12.2.1.3 Able and willing
4.12.2.1.4 Able and unwilling
4.12.2.2 Hershey & Blanchard
4.12.3 Leadership & management intervention is proposed to be on a continuum dependent upon skills, expertise & experience of the group
4.12.3.1 Tannenbaum & Schmidt
4.12.3.2 Closer supervision for subordinates who are inexperienced or lacking in skills at first
4.12.3.3 Close attention & supervision reduces over time, once skills & experience have developed
4.12.4 Leaders must balance the needs of the Task, Team & Individual, & vary the amount of attention he pays to each o these 3 areas according to the requirements of the situation
4.12.4.1 Task element-setting clear objectives & expectations, & managing processes required for people to follow
4.12.4.1.1 Team element-ensuring communication & interactions between team members are smooth, & that workload is balanced across the team
4.12.4.1.1.1 Individual element-considering the individual needs of people & spending time & effort getting to know how individuals are feeling
5 Transformational vs Transactional Leadership
5.1 Transformational
5.1.1 To transform people & orgs in a literal sense, changing them in heart & mind, enlarging their vision & clarifying purpose
5.1.1.1 Builds on need for meaning
5.1.1.1.1 Preoccupied with purpose, values, morals & ethics
5.1.1.1.1.1 Transcends daily affiairs
5.1.1.1.1.1.1 Long term goals without compromising human values
5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Focuses more on mission & strategy
5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Releases human potential-identifies talent
5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Designs & re-designs jobs to make them challenging & meaningful
5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Aligns internal structures & systems to reinforce overarching values & goals
5.2 Transactional
5.2.1 'Business as usual' where leaders gain their workers' commitment to a task by rewarding them in line with expectation of the role
5.2.1.1 Builds on the need for a man to get the job done
5.2.1.1.1 Is preoccupied with power, position, perks & politics
5.2.1.1.1.1 Is mired in daily affairs
5.2.1.1.1.1.1 Short-term & hard data oriented
5.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 Focuses on tactical issues
5.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Relies on human relations to lubricate human interactions
5.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Follows & fulfils role expectations by striving to work effectively within current systems
5.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Supports structures & systems that maximise efficiency & guarantee short-term profit
5.2.1.1.2 Covey
6 Path Goal Theory
6.1 Based on expectancy theory of motivation
6.1.1 Leader behaviour is acceptable & satisfying to followers to the extent that they see it as an immediate source of satisfaction or instrument to future satisfaction
6.1.1.1 Picks from:
6.1.1.1.1 Directive
6.1.1.1.2 Supportive
6.1.1.1.3 Participative
6.1.1.1.4 Achievement-oriented
6.2 House
7 Charismatic Leadership
7.1 Builds on transformational leaders, the antidote to downturn
7.1.1 Able to motivate, rebuild morale & promote strong vision for future
7.2 4 characteristics:
7.2.1 dominant personality & desire to influence others
7.2.1.1 strong role model behaviour
7.2.1.1.1 articulation of ideological goals
7.2.1.1.1.1 high expectation of followers & a confidence that expectations will be met
7.3 Northouse
8 Servant & Team Leadership
8.1 Servant: Leader wishes to serve his/her people, rather than a desire to lead or dictate
8.2 Team: Leaders knowing when to follow, & importance of leader acting as team facilitator rather than director
8.2.1 Knows when to ask questions
8.2.1.1 Chooses to delegate & share roles
8.2.1.1.1 Builds on & appreciates diversity
8.2.1.1.1.1 Seeks out talented people
8.2.1.1.1.1.1 Develops colleagues & creates a sense of mission & purpose
8.2.2 Belbin
8.3 4 Types of Senior Teams:
8.3.1 Informational Teams
8.3.1.1 Consultative Teams
8.3.1.1.1 Coordinating Teams
8.3.1.1.1.1 Decision-making Teams
8.3.2 Wagerman, Fisher & Hackman
9 Distributed Leadership
9.1 All of us can exert a leadership influence over colleagues, & in turn influence the direction & success of the org
9.2 Emphasises importance of relationships
9.2.1 Focuses on everyone in the org as being involved in the org's future
9.2.1.1 Promotes the concept of emergent leadership, orgs to develop leaders throughout org & not just at the top
9.2.1.1.1 Relies on ability of individual to influence through their social interactions & not position
9.2.1.1.1.1 Emphasises outcomes of effective leadership, rather than ability of leaders to prove themselves competent in various skills
10 Strategic Organisational Leadership
10.1 Rational Strategy Formulation
10.1.1 Relies on predictability of events
10.2 Emergent Strategy Formulation
10.2.1 Emphasises uncertain conditions & involves bringing in contingencies
11 Strategy Formulation
11.1 Pub Sec Differences:
11.1.1 Political changes
11.1.1.1 Leadership changes
11.1.1.1.1 CG interference
11.1.1.1.1.1 Variety of stakeholders
11.2 Key Pub Sec Drivers:
11.2.1 Reducing costs
11.2.2 Obtaining value for money
11.3 Characteristics of a successful strategic manager:
11.3.1 Mixture of sensitivity & toughness

Annotations:

  • Sensitivity to gauge both external & internal environments & to assess the risks of failure
  • Toughness to persist with strategies to ensure the org is moving in a purposeful direction
11.3.1.1 Wisdom to refrain from managing components of the org but rather provide leadership
11.3.1.1.1 mapping environ to org & org to environ
11.3.1.1.2 managing interplay bet tasks & processes when change is required
11.3.1.1.3 Skill to spot leading edge of an activity
11.4 Public Sector Leadership
11.4.1 Structure
11.4.1.1 Lawful delegation of authority & external controls that leaders work within
11.4.2 Craft
11.4.2.1 Leaders' behaviours & personality
11.4.3 Institution
11.4.3.1 Pub sec leader has strong opps to devise strategy, based on matching known external demands with internal motivation to achieve goals
11.5 Strategic Leadership
11.5.1 The ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility & empower others to create the strategic change necessary
11.5.2 Exercising Power:
11.5.2.1 Mete out resources
11.5.2.1.1 Shape behaviour through reward & consequence
11.5.2.1.1.1 Advance on multiple fronts
11.5.2.1.1.1.1 Make the first move
11.5.2.1.1.1.1.1 Co-opt antagonists
11.5.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 Remove rivals, if possible
11.5.2.2 Make the vision compelling
11.5.2.2.1 Make important relationships work-no matter what
11.5.2.2.1.1 Persist
11.5.2.2.1.1.1 Use the personal touch
11.5.2.2.1.1.1.1 Don't draw unnecessary fire
11.5.2.3 Barriers:
11.5.2.3.1 Believe world is just place & everything will work out
11.5.2.3.1.1 Following socially acceptable desires for leaders to be truthful, modest & self effacing
11.5.2.3.2 Choosing not to actively seek power, guarding themselves from experiencing a knock to their self-esteem when they fail
11.5.2.3.3 Pfeffer
11.6 Selling the vision:
11.6.1 1. Establish sense of urgency
11.6.1.1 2. Creating the guiding coalition
11.6.1.1.1 3. Developing a change vision
11.6.1.1.1.1 4. Communicating the change vision
11.6.1.1.1.1.1 5. Empowering broad based action
11.6.1.1.1.1.1.1 6. Generating short-term wins
11.6.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 7. Never letting up
11.6.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 8. Incorporating changes into the culture
12 Role of Finance Director
12.1 More than just head accountant
12.2 Heart of decision making
12.3 Generating innovative ideas to solve problems
12.4 Have 'presence'
13 Public Engagement
13.1 A structured communication or dialogue between govt, public & other interested parties, to inform specific policy development or specific service implementation
13.1.1 More specific than regular stakeholder engagement-more focussed on specific policy/service development
13.1.1.1 Types:
13.1.1.1.1 Information giving
13.1.1.1.1.1 Information gathering
13.1.1.1.1.1.1 Consultation
13.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Involvement
13.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Partnership
13.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Empowerment
13.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Ballots, tenant management associations
13.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 Online forums
13.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 Citizen's juries, workshops
13.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 Online, public meetings, surgeries
13.1.1.1.1.1.2 Surveys, focus groups
13.1.1.1.1.2 Leaflets, websites, public meetings
14 Collaborative Leadership
14.1 Characteristics to support collaboration:
14.1.1 Change should be led by most senior people appropriate
14.1.1.1 Scale & complexity should be well scoped & maintained
14.1.1.1.1 Common ground should be identified, agreement on problems & outcomes
14.1.1.1.1.1 Time devoted to understanding perspectives & values of diff parties
14.1.1.1.1.1.1 Time & resource devoted to regular & effective communication
14.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Clear & equitable governance arrangement put in place, with transparent decision-making & communication about developments
14.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Partnership working takes time & resources
14.2 Attributes of successful collab leaders:
14.2.1 Political & strategic awareness
14.2.1.1 Interpersonal skills
14.2.1.1.1 Knowledge of the process
14.3 The 8 I's that create successful We's
14.3.1 Individual excellence
14.3.1.1 Importance
14.3.1.1.1 Interdependence
14.3.1.1.1.1 Investment
14.3.1.1.1.1.1 Information
14.3.1.1.1.1.1.1 Integration
14.3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Institutionalisation
14.3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Integrity
14.3.2 Moss Kanter
14.4 3 requirements for competitive advantage of collaboration to be achieved:
14.4.1 Alliances are living systems that evolve
14.4.1.1 Alliances should involve collaboration rather than mere exchange
14.4.1.1.1 Alliances require a dense web of interpersonal connections & internal infrastructures that enhance learning
15 Innovation & Thought Leadership
15.1 Leaders need to be aware of the culture, capability & capacity to innovate & support accordingly
15.1.1 Cultural requirements for innovation:
15.1.1.1 Risk taking
15.1.1.1.1 Resources
15.1.1.1.1.1 Knowledge
15.1.1.1.1.1.1 Goals
15.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Rewards
15.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Tools
15.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Relationships
15.2 Thought Leadership
15.2.1 An entity that is seen as having creative & innovative ideas
16 Sustainability
16.1 Spectrum of pub sec leadership on sustainable development
16.1.1 At risk
16.1.1.1 Compliance led
16.1.1.1.1 Incremental
16.1.1.1.1.1 Strategic
16.2 9 step model for achieving sustainable development
16.2.1 Make the case
16.2.1.1 Build networks
16.2.1.1.1 Link policy with delivery
16.2.1.1.1.1 Share the learning
16.2.1.1.1.1.1 Create a learning culture
16.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 Run demonstration projects
16.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Skill-up for public engagement
16.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Hardwire sustainability into financial processes
16.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Innovate
16.3 Birney, Clarkeson , Madden, Porritt & Tuxworth
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