MCQ practice for research methods, psychology

Ben Armstrong
Quiz by , created almost 4 years ago

A brief overview of possible questions to come up in the research methods exam

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Ben Armstrong
Created by Ben Armstrong almost 4 years ago
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Question 1

Question
Basic scientific research is carried out:
Answer
  • To solve practical problems
  • Just to see what would happen
  • To verify a theoretical problem
  • To gather data to test a theory

Question 2

Question
Precision Teaching is defined as:
Answer
  • A method of teaching a child to be highly fluent in certain skills
  • A measurement system that helps a teacher decide on whether the teaching is effective
  • A teaching approach that emphasises basic skills teaching
  • A system that allows teachers to design a precise curriculum

Question 3

Question
When developing hypotheses, the inductive approach seeks to_____
Answer
  • Generate hypotheses
  • Test hypotheses
  • Simplify hypotheses
  • All of the above

Question 4

Question
Which of the following best represents the stages of the experimental method of research?
Answer
  • Research question, hypothesis testing, data collection, data analysis, support/reject theory
  • Research question, generate theory, hypothesis testing, data collection, data analysis, support/reject theory
  • Research question, generate theory, data collection, data analysis, support/reject theory
  • Generate theory, hypothesis testing, data collection, data analysis, support/reject theory

Question 5

Question
A theory must be parsimonious, specific and testable. To what does the term parsimonious refer?
Answer
  • The easiest, most sensible and most academic explanation of the evidence
  • The first answer is usually the correct one when testing a theory
  • The simplest, most economical and efficient explanation of the evidence
  • The most detailed answer is usually the correct one when testing a theory

Question 6

Question
A Murder Mystery – Detective Noclue interviews a large pool of suspects, and then eliminates them to leave the culprit unmasked. This is an example which of scientific method?
Answer
  • Induction
  • Deduction
  • Reduction
  • All of the above

Question 7

Question
Which is not one of the four principles of PT
Answer
  • Frequency as a measure of behaviour
  • Learner knows best
  • Standard Celeration Chart is used as a measurement tool
  • Focus on all types of behaviours

Question 8

Question
Which of the following does NOT form part of the SAFMEDS procedure?
Answer
  • Saying responses aloud
  • Focus is on speed as well as accuracy
  • Work on a section of the pack at a time
  • Complete timings each day

Question 9

Question
An alternative term for a repeated measures design is__________
Answer
  • Between-subjects design
  • Within-subjects design
  • Reversal design
  • Self-correcting design

Question 10

Question
A hypothesis is best defined as ____________
Answer
  • A classification system
  • An unproved theory about the outcome of a study
  • A prediction about the outcome of the study
  • A proven fact

Question 11

Question
Dr Who was attempting to find a cure for procrastination. He developed an intervention whereby students were immediately rewarded with chocolate for handing work in early. He designed an experiment with one treatment group. Chocolate given to students was the dependent variable. Individuals were first measured in a baseline phase, then a treatment phase, followed by another baseline phase. This is a classic example of a(n):
Answer
  • Independent samples design
  • Multiple case design
  • A-B-C design
  • A-B-A design

Question 12

Question
The phase of a SCD experiment in which the treatment is introduced is known as the ________ phase.
Answer
  • Baseline
  • Intervention
  • Replication
  • Post-test

Question 13

Question
When you move from a baseline phase to an intervention phase and then back to a baseline phase, you are using a_________________ design
Answer
  • Drifting baseline
  • Reversal design
  • Intrasubject design
  • Intersubject design

Question 14

Question
Which of the following is NOT a phase in the A-B-A design?
Answer
  • Baseline measurement
  • Introduction of treatment
  • Introduction of a second treatment
  • Removal of treatment

Question 15

Question
Multiple baseline designs attempt to control for confounds by_______
Answer
  • Introducing the treatment at different time points to different people
  • Introducing the treatment to the same person across different behaviours
  • Introducing the treatment to the same person in different situations
  • All of the answers

Question 16

Question
The ABA design is generally considered ________ than the ABAB design because participants _________
Answer
  • More desirable; are left with the effects of the treatment
  • Less desirable; are not left with the effects of the treatment
  • More desirable; are not left with the effects of the treatment
  • Less desirable; are left with the effects of the treatment

Question 17

Question
The baseline stage of a single-case experimental design is useful to researchers because behavior during the baseline allows the researchers to_________
Answer
  • Get an initial idea of whether the treatment will be effective.
  • Determine whether an individual is likely to benefit from the treatment.
  • Describe behavior before administering the treatment and predict what behavior will be like in the future without treatment.
  • Determine the best way

Question 18

Question
In the ABAB design, a major ethical concern surrounds______
Answer
  • Waiting for a series of initial baseline observations before administering the treatment
  • Administering the treatment immediately after the initial baseline phase
  • Removing the treatment after it has already been shown to be effective
  • Reintroducing the treatment after it has already been shown to be effective

Question 19

Question
If told that this intervention (A-B) was successful, was the behaviour?
Answer
  • Something we wanted to INCREASE in frequency
  • Something we wanted to DECREASE in frequency
  • Something that we wanted to remain the same
  • Not enough information to make a judgment

Question 20

Question
What is the Percentage of Non-overlapping data for the participant?
Answer
  • 60%
  • 70%
  • 80%
  • 90%

Question 21

Question
An educational psychologist was interested in the effects of a six-week mnemonics intervention on students’ ability to remember areas of the brain such as the hippocampus. How might you define the mnemonics intervention?
Answer
  • Independent variable
  • Dependent variable
  • Outcome variable
  • Resultant variable

Question 22

Question
Researchers wanted to examine the impact of watching Alien on memory in a group of older adults. A variety of cognitive tests such as memory tests and word generation tests were administered to the group before, during and after watching one of the films. How might you describe the research design of such a study?
Answer
  • Between-groups design
  • Between-within design
  • Within-subjects design
  • Independent-groups design

Question 23

Question
The results of the Tauntaun long jump final at the Hoth Olympics a long time ago in a galaxy far far away are given below. What is the mean distance jumped by the top 10 Rebel Soldiers (answers to two decimal places)?
Answer
  • 8.04 m
  • 8.05 m
  • 8.06 m
  • 8.07 m

Question 24

Question
What is the median distance jumped by the top 10 Rebel Pilots (answers to 2 decimal places)?
Answer
  • 8.05 m
  • 8.07 m
  • 8.09 m
  • 8.11 m

Question 25

Question
Examine the histogram of the qualifying distance for the Tauntauns long jump final at the Hoth Olympics. How would you describe the appearance of the histogram?
Answer
  • Negatively skewed
  • Positively skewed
  • Positive kurtosis (leptokurtic)
  • Negative kurtosis (platykurtic)

Question 26

Question
Large standard deviations will have what sort of distribution, relative to a distribution with a low standard deviation?
Answer
  • Raised
  • Flatter
  • The same
  • Zero

Question 27

Question
The middle score in a distribution is the __________________ and the score occurring the greatest frequency is the ____________________.
Answer
  • Mean; Median
  • Median;Mode
  • Mean; Mode
  • Mode;Median

Question 28

Question
A prediction regarding the outcomes of a study is a(n) ____________ and an organised system of assumptions and principles that attempts to explain certain phenomena and how they are related is a(n)__________________.
Answer
  • Theory; Hypothesis
  • Hypothesis;Theory
  • Independent variable; Dependent variable
  • Dependent variable; Independent variable

Question 29

Question
In which of the following distributions would you find the mean, median and mode to be identical?
Answer
  • Normal
  • Positively Skewed
  • Negatively Skewed
  • All of the answers

Question 30

Question
When writing up a results section for most types of study (including SCD studies) it is good practice to use which ordering of detail?
Answer
  • Descriptive statistics, effect size, figure/table/graph
  • Figure/table/graph, descriptive statistics, effect size
  • Descriptive statistics, figure/graph/table, effect size
  • Effect size, figure/graph/table, descriptive statistics

Question 31

Question
The length of time taken to complete a multiple choice questionnaire exam would be best measured using a(n):
Answer
  • Interval level measure
  • Ratio level measure
  • Nominal level measure
  • Ordinal level measure

Question 32

Question
While temperature in degrees Celsius is measured on a(n) ____________ scale, ‘luke-warm, warm, and hot’ would be examples of a(n) ____________ scale
Answer
  • Interval; Ratio
  • Interval; Ordinal
  • Ratio; Interval
  • Ratio; Ordinal

Question 33

Question
Using letter grades (A, B, C, D, E) to classify student performance on an exam is an example of measurement on a(n)____________ scale
Answer
  • Nominal
  • Ordinal
  • Interval
  • Ratio

Question 34

Question
Which of the following is NOT a continuous variable?
Answer
  • Time to solve a problem
  • Temperature
  • Height
  • Number of children in a family

Question 35

Question
Which type of data would you use to record your status as a full or part time student?
Answer
  • Ordinal
  • Continuous
  • Dichotomous
  • Factorial

Question 36

Question
Which level of measurement would be best to measure the approximate distance from Main Arts to the Wheldon Building?
Answer
  • Nominal
  • Ordinal
  • Ratio
  • Interval

Question 37

Question
By definition a ratio scale has an absolute zero. What does this mean?
Answer
  • A point where none of the quality being measured exists
  • A point where you can score a minus value
  • A point where you have no opinion on a topic
  • Absolute zero does not exist; it is a hypothetical construct

Question 38

Question
In SPSS what is the 'Variable View'?
Answer
  • A dialog box that allows you to choose a statistical test
  • A table summarising the frequencies of data for one variable
  • A screen in which variables can be defined and labelled
  • A screen in which data are entered

Question 39

Question
Which of the following methods would you use to enter data on gender into SPSS so you can conduct statistical analyses?
Answer
  • Enter data for males first and then for females
  • Type male, female, or non-gender specific into the appropriate column of the data view
  • Enter the data into different pages on SPSS depending on whether the answers are Male, Female or Non-gender specific
  • Numerically code the answers given with different numbers

Question 40

Question
You are asked on a questionnaire to tick all the relevant boxes that apply to you on an item asking you which clubs or societies you belong to. Affiliation to a club or society would best be thought of what sort of variable?
Answer
  • A categorical variable
  • An absolute variable
  • A hypothetical variable
  • A continuous variable

Question 41

Question
What is meant by the term descriptive statistics?
Answer
  • Methods used to summarise the data
  • Methods used to see if the results are significant
  • Methods used to generalise from a sample
  • All of the above

Question 42

Question
What is the best way to summarise nominal data?
Answer
  • Means
  • Standard deviations
  • Frequencies
  • Medians

Question 43

Question
The standard deviation is...
Answer
  • The variance divided by the sample size
  • The square root of the sums of squares
  • The average of the sums of squares
  • The square root of the variance

Question 44

Question
Which of the following statements are true?
Answer
  • A 95% confidence interval is a range of scores from the lowest to the highest value in the sample
  • A 95% confidence interval is a range of scores within which we believe the population mean will fall
  • A 95% confidence interval is a range of scores within which we believe that participants were confident in their answers
  • All of the answers

Question 45

Question
The frequency distribution of the means of several samples from the population is called....
Answer
  • The standard deviation
  • The sampling distribution
  • The mode
  • The variance

Question 46

Question
Which type of chart displays the mean with the confidence intervals represented as vertical lines?
Answer
  • Line chart
  • Histogram chart
  • Horizontal bar chart
  • Error bar chart

Question 47

Question
Compute the mean of the following set of scores and give the answer to 2 decimal places: 3, 5, 7, 3, 6, 8, 2, 7
Answer
  • 5.1
  • 5.13
  • 5.12
  • 5.2

Question 48

Question
A _____________ is a numerical characteristic of a population and a ____________ is a numerical characteristic of a sample
Answer
  • statistic; parameter
  • mode; mean
  • model; descriptive
  • parameter; statistic

Question 49

Question
The typical value of a dataset is described by measures of...
Answer
  • Central Tendency
  • Variance
  • Dispersion
  • Normality

Question 50

Question
When the confidence intervals are small, this suggests that...
Answer
  • The population mean is a good estimate of the sample mean
  • The sample mean is a good estimate of the population mean
  • The sample mean is a poor estimate of the population mean
  • The sample mean may be significantly different from the population mean

Question 51

Question
If an event has a 95% probability of occurring, what does this mean?
Answer
  • The event will occur 5 times out of every 100
  • The event will occur 95 times out of every 100
  • The event will occur 95 times out of every 95
  • The event will occur 5 times out of every 95

Question 52

Question
Use the additional figure to answer the next three questions. The figure shows the standard normal distribution. Arrow A indicates the ____________
Answer
  • Mean
  • Median
  • Mode
  • All of the answers

Question 53

Question
Arrow B indicates ______________
Answer
  • 68.26% of scores
  • 34.13% of scores
  • 50.00% of scores
  • 95.44% of scores

Question 54

Question
Arrow C indicates _____________
Answer
  • 50% above the mean
  • 100% above the mean
  • 1 standard deviation above the mean
  • 2 standard deviations above the mean

Question 55

Question
If your z-score was -2.85, this would show that ____________
Answer
  • Your score was 2.85 times smaller than the highest score in the class
  • Your score was 2.85 standard deviations below the mean
  • Your score was 2.85 standard deviations above the mean
  • There was a probability of 2.85% of obtaining a score less than your score

Question 56

Question
The difference between the sample statistic and the population parameter is called the ______________
Answer
  • Extraneous variable
  • Experimenter bias
  • Systematic error
  • Sampling error

Question 57

Question
If the scores on a test have a mean of 26 and a standard deviation of 4, what is the z-score for a score of 18?
Answer
  • -2
  • 11
  • 2
  • -3

Question 58

Question
If you have a probability of 67%, what is it expressed as a decimal?
Answer
  • 0.07
  • 0.06
  • 0.67
  • 6.70

Question 59

Question
In order to comply with BPS ethics guidelines, researchers should ____________
Answer
  • Ensure that people give informed consent to participate
  • Ensure that all participants complete the experiment
  • Ensure that participants do not find out the true purpose of the research
  • All of the answers

Question 60

Question
Which of the following would give the closest value to the population mean?
Answer
  • The standard error
  • The mean of one sample
  • The mean of several sample means
  • The standard deviation

Question 61

Question
“A data point very far removed from others within the data set” is known as?
Answer
  • A latent variable
  • A case
  • An outlier
  • Significant

Question 62

Question
Which of the following actions will always change the value of the mean?
Answer
  • Changing the value of one score
  • Adding a new score to the distribution
  • Removing a score from the distribution
  • All of the answers

Question 63

Question
A sample consists of n=16 scores. How many of the scores are used to calculate the sample range?
Answer
  • 2
  • 8
  • 15
  • All 16

Question 64

Question
The phase of a multiple baseline design in which the treatment is introduced is known as______________.
Answer
  • The baseline
  • The phaseline
  • The intervention
  • The application

Question 65

Question
Two events are_____________ if they have no effect on each other.
Answer
  • Correlated
  • Independent
  • Related
  • Dependent

Question 66

Question
Population ___________, sample statistics.
Answer
  • Parameters
  • Percentiles
  • Descriptives
  • Inferentials

Question 67

Question
The purpose of a research report is to provide what kind of information?
Answer
  • What was done
  • What was found
  • How the research study is related to other knowledge
  • All of the answers

Question 68

Question
Probability values are always____.
Answer
  • Greater than or equal to 0
  • Less than or equal to 1
  • Positive numbers
  • All of the answers

Question 69

Question
In a population of N=6, five of the individuals all have scores that are exactly 1 point above the mean. From this information you can determine that the score for the sixth individual must be____________.
Answer
  • Also above the mean by one point.
  • Below the mean by one point.
  • Below the mean by five points
  • We do not have enough information to describe the 6th score.

Question 70

Question
The normal distribution is an example of________________.
Answer
  • A histogram showing data from a sample.
  • A polygon showing data from a sample.
  • A bar graph showing data from a population.
  • A smooth curve showing data from a population.

Question 71

Question
Dr Martha Jones is interested in studying how indoor lighting can influence mood during the winter. She selects a sample of 110 households. Fifty of the homes were randomly assigned to the bright-light condition where Dr Jones replaced all the lights with 100-watt bulbs. In the other 50 houses, all the lights were changed to 60 watt bulbs. After two months Dr Martha Jones measured the level of depression for the people living in the houses. In this example, the level of depression is the ______ variable.
Answer
  • Dependent
  • Extraneous
  • Correlational
  • Independent

Question 72

Question
Dr Martha Jones is interested in studying how indoor lighting can influence mood during the winter. She selects a sample of 110 households. Fifty of the homes were randomly assigned to the bright-light condition where Dr Jones replaced all the lights with 100-watt bulbs. In the other 50 houses, all the lights were changed to 60 watt bulbs. After two months Dr Martha Jones measured the level of depression for the people living in the houses. In this example, the independent variable is _________.
Answer
  • The brightness of the lights
  • The level of depression
  • The houses with 110-watt bulbs
  • The houses with 60-watt bulbs

Question 73

Question
Dr Martha Jones is interested in studying how indoor lighting can influence mood during the winter. She selects a sample of 110 households. Fifty of the homes were randomly assigned to the bright-light condition where Dr Jones replaced all the lights with 100-watt bulbs. In the other 50 houses, all the lights were changed to 60 watt bulbs. After two months Dr Martha Jones measured the level of depression for the people living in the houses. The design of the study can best be described as __________
Answer
  • Correlational
  • Between-groups
  • Within-groups
  • Control group