Question 1
Question
Basic scientific research is carried out:
Answer

To solve practical problems

Just to see what would happen

To verify a theoretical problem

To gather data to test a theory
Question 2
Question
Precision Teaching is defined as:
Answer

A method of teaching a child to be highly fluent in certain skills

A measurement system that helps a teacher decide on whether the teaching is effective

A teaching approach that emphasises basic skills teaching

A system that allows teachers to design a precise curriculum
Question 3
Question
When developing hypotheses, the inductive approach seeks to_____
Answer

Generate hypotheses

Test hypotheses

Simplify hypotheses

All of the above
Question 4
Question
Which of the following best represents the stages of the experimental method of research?
Answer

Research question, hypothesis testing, data collection, data analysis, support/reject theory

Research question, generate theory, hypothesis testing, data collection, data analysis, support/reject theory

Research question, generate theory, data collection, data analysis, support/reject theory

Generate theory, hypothesis testing, data collection, data analysis, support/reject theory
Question 5
Question
A theory must be parsimonious, specific and testable. To what does the term parsimonious refer?
Answer

The easiest, most sensible and most academic explanation of the evidence

The first answer is usually the correct one when testing a theory

The simplest, most economical and efficient explanation of the evidence

The most detailed answer is usually the correct one when testing a theory
Question 6
Question
A Murder Mystery – Detective Noclue interviews a large pool of suspects, and then eliminates them to leave the culprit unmasked. This is an example which of scientific method?
Answer

Induction

Deduction

Reduction

All of the above
Question 7
Question
Which is not one of the four principles of PT
Answer

Frequency as a measure of behaviour

Learner knows best

Standard Celeration Chart is used as a measurement tool

Focus on all types of behaviours
Question 8
Question
Which of the following does NOT form part of the SAFMEDS procedure?
Answer

Saying responses aloud

Focus is on speed as well as accuracy

Work on a section of the pack at a time

Complete timings each day
Question 9
Question
An alternative term for a repeated measures design is__________
Answer

Betweensubjects design

Withinsubjects design

Reversal design

Selfcorrecting design
Question 10
Question
A hypothesis is best defined as ____________
Question 11
Question
Dr Who was attempting to find a cure for procrastination. He developed an intervention whereby students were immediately rewarded with chocolate for handing work in early. He designed an experiment with one treatment group. Chocolate given to students was the dependent variable. Individuals were first measured in a baseline phase, then a treatment phase, followed by another baseline phase. This is a classic example of a(n):
Question 12
Question
The phase of a SCD experiment in which the treatment is introduced is known as the ________ phase.
Answer

Baseline

Intervention

Replication

Posttest
Question 13
Question
When you move from a baseline phase to an intervention phase and then back to a baseline phase, you are using a_________________ design
Answer

Drifting baseline

Reversal design

Intrasubject design

Intersubject design
Question 14
Question
Which of the following is NOT a phase in the ABA design?
Question 15
Question
Multiple baseline designs attempt to control for confounds by_______
Answer

Introducing the treatment at different time points to different people

Introducing the treatment to the same person across different behaviours

Introducing the treatment to the same person in different situations

All of the answers
Question 16
Question
The ABA design is generally considered ________ than the ABAB design because participants _________
Answer

More desirable; are left with the effects of the treatment

Less desirable; are not left with the effects of the treatment

More desirable; are not left with the effects of the treatment

Less desirable; are left with the effects of the treatment
Question 17
Question
The baseline stage of a singlecase experimental design is useful to researchers because behavior during the baseline allows the researchers to_________
Answer

Get an initial idea of whether the treatment will be effective.

Determine whether an individual is likely to benefit from the treatment.

Describe behavior before administering the treatment and predict what behavior will be like in the future without treatment.

Determine the best way
Question 18
Question
In the ABAB design, a major ethical concern surrounds______
Answer

Waiting for a series of initial baseline observations before administering the treatment

Administering the treatment immediately after the initial baseline phase

Removing the treatment after it has already been shown to be effective

Reintroducing the treatment after it has already been shown to be effective
Question 19
Question
If told that this intervention (AB) was successful, was the behaviour?
Answer

Something we wanted to INCREASE in frequency

Something we wanted to DECREASE in frequency

Something that we wanted to remain the same

Not enough information to make a judgment
Question 20
Question
What is the Percentage of Nonoverlapping data for the participant?
Question 21
Question
An educational psychologist was interested in the effects of a sixweek mnemonics intervention on students’ ability to remember areas of the brain such as the hippocampus. How might you define the mnemonics intervention?
Answer

Independent variable

Dependent variable

Outcome variable

Resultant variable
Question 22
Question
Researchers wanted to examine the impact of watching Alien on memory in a group of older adults. A variety of cognitive tests such as memory tests and word generation tests were administered to the group before, during and after watching one of the films. How might you describe the research design of such a study?
Question 23
Question
The results of the Tauntaun long jump final at the Hoth Olympics a long time ago in a galaxy far far away are given below. What is the mean distance jumped by the top 10 Rebel Soldiers (answers to two decimal places)?
Answer

8.04 m

8.05 m

8.06 m

8.07 m
Question 24
Question
What is the median distance jumped by the top 10 Rebel Pilots (answers to 2 decimal places)?
Answer

8.05 m

8.07 m

8.09 m

8.11 m
Question 25
Question
Examine the histogram of the qualifying distance for the Tauntauns long jump final at the Hoth Olympics. How would you describe the appearance of the histogram?
Question 26
Question
Large standard deviations will have what sort of distribution, relative to a distribution with a low standard deviation?
Answer

Raised

Flatter

The same

Zero
Question 27
Question
The middle score in a distribution is the __________________ and the score occurring the greatest frequency is the ____________________.
Answer

Mean; Median

Median;Mode

Mean; Mode

Mode;Median
Question 28
Question
A prediction regarding the outcomes of a study is a(n) ____________ and an organised system of assumptions and principles that attempts to explain certain phenomena and how they are related is a(n)__________________.
Question 29
Question
In which of the following distributions would you find the mean, median and mode to
be identical?
Answer

Normal

Positively Skewed

Negatively Skewed

All of the answers
Question 30
Question
When writing up a results section for most types of study (including SCD studies) it is good practice to use which ordering of detail?
Answer

Descriptive statistics, effect size, figure/table/graph

Figure/table/graph, descriptive statistics, effect size

Descriptive statistics, figure/graph/table, effect size

Effect size, figure/graph/table, descriptive statistics
Question 31
Question
The length of time taken to complete a multiple choice questionnaire exam would be best measured using a(n):
Answer

Interval level measure

Ratio level measure

Nominal level measure

Ordinal level measure
Question 32
Question
While temperature in degrees Celsius is measured on a(n) ____________ scale, ‘lukewarm, warm, and hot’ would be examples of a(n) ____________ scale
Answer

Interval; Ratio

Interval; Ordinal

Ratio; Interval

Ratio; Ordinal
Question 33
Question
Using letter grades (A, B, C, D, E) to classify student performance on an exam is an example of measurement on a(n)____________ scale
Answer

Nominal

Ordinal

Interval

Ratio
Question 34
Question
Which of the following is NOT a continuous variable?
Question 35
Question
Which type of data would you use to record your status as a full or part time student?
Answer

Ordinal

Continuous

Dichotomous

Factorial
Question 36
Question
Which level of measurement would be best to measure the approximate distance from Main Arts to the Wheldon Building?
Answer

Nominal

Ordinal

Ratio

Interval
Question 37
Question
By definition a ratio scale has an absolute zero. What does this mean?
Answer

A point where none of the quality being measured exists

A point where you can score a minus value

A point where you have no opinion on a topic

Absolute zero does not exist; it is a hypothetical construct
Question 38
Question
In SPSS what is the 'Variable View'?
Answer

A dialog box that allows you to choose a statistical test

A table summarising the frequencies of data for one variable

A screen in which variables can be defined and labelled

A screen in which data are entered
Question 39
Question
Which of the following methods would you use to enter data on gender into SPSS so you can conduct statistical analyses?
Answer

Enter data for males first and then for females

Type male, female, or nongender specific into the appropriate column of the data view

Enter the data into different pages on SPSS depending on whether the answers are Male, Female or Nongender specific

Numerically code the answers given with different numbers
Question 40
Question
You are asked on a questionnaire to tick all the relevant boxes that apply to you on an item asking you which clubs or societies you belong to. Affiliation to a club or society would best be thought of what sort of variable?
Answer

A categorical variable

An absolute variable

A hypothetical variable

A continuous variable
Question 41
Question
What is meant by the term descriptive statistics?
Answer

Methods used to summarise the data

Methods used to see if the results are significant

Methods used to generalise from a sample

All of the above
Question 42
Question
What is the best way to summarise nominal data?
Answer

Means

Standard deviations

Frequencies

Medians
Question 43
Question
The standard deviation is...
Answer

The variance divided by the sample size

The square root of the sums of squares

The average of the sums of squares

The square root of the variance
Question 44
Question
Which of the following statements are true?
Answer

A 95% confidence interval is a range of scores from the lowest to the highest value in the sample

A 95% confidence interval is a range of scores within which we believe the population mean will fall

A 95% confidence interval is a range of scores within which we believe that participants were confident in their answers

All of the answers
Question 45
Question
The frequency distribution of the means of several samples from the population is called....
Question 46
Question
Which type of chart displays the mean with the confidence intervals represented as vertical lines?
Answer

Line chart

Histogram chart

Horizontal bar chart

Error bar chart
Question 47
Question
Compute the mean of the following set of scores and give the answer to 2 decimal places: 3, 5, 7, 3, 6, 8, 2, 7
Question 48
Question
A _____________ is a numerical characteristic of a population and a ____________ is a numerical characteristic of a sample
Answer

statistic; parameter

mode; mean

model; descriptive

parameter; statistic
Question 49
Question
The typical value of a dataset is described by measures of...
Answer

Central Tendency

Variance

Dispersion

Normality
Question 50
Question
When the confidence intervals are small, this suggests that...
Answer

The population mean is a good estimate of the sample mean

The sample mean is a good estimate of the population mean

The sample mean is a poor estimate of the population mean

The sample mean may be significantly different from the population mean
Question 51
Question
If an event has a 95% probability of occurring, what does this mean?
Answer

The event will occur 5 times out of every 100

The event will occur 95 times out of every 100

The event will occur 95 times out of every 95

The event will occur 5 times out of every 95
Question 52
Question
Use the additional figure to answer the next three questions. The figure shows the standard normal distribution. Arrow A indicates the ____________
Answer

Mean

Median

Mode

All of the answers
Question 53
Question
Arrow B indicates ______________
Answer

68.26% of scores

34.13% of scores

50.00% of scores

95.44% of scores
Question 54
Question
Arrow C indicates _____________
Question 55
Question
If your zscore was 2.85, this would show that ____________
Answer

Your score was 2.85 times smaller than the highest score in the class

Your score was 2.85 standard deviations below the mean

Your score was 2.85 standard deviations above the mean

There was a probability of 2.85% of obtaining a score less than your score
Question 56
Question
The difference between the sample statistic and the population parameter is called the ______________
Answer

Extraneous variable

Experimenter bias

Systematic error

Sampling error
Question 57
Question
If the scores on a test have a mean of 26 and a standard deviation of 4, what is the zscore for a score of 18?
Question 58
Question
If you have a probability of 67%, what is it expressed as a decimal?
Question 59
Question
In order to comply with BPS ethics guidelines, researchers should ____________
Answer

Ensure that people give informed consent to participate

Ensure that all participants complete the experiment

Ensure that participants do not find out the true purpose of the research

All of the answers
Question 60
Question
Which of the following would give the closest value to the population mean?
Question 61
Question
“A data point very far removed from others within the data set” is known as?
Answer

A latent variable

A case

An outlier

Significant
Question 62
Question
Which of the following actions will always change the value of the mean?
Answer

Changing the value of one score

Adding a new score to the distribution

Removing a score from the distribution

All of the answers
Question 63
Question
A sample consists of n=16 scores. How many of the scores are used to calculate the sample range?
Question 64
Question
The phase of a multiple baseline design in which the treatment is introduced is known as______________.
Answer

The baseline

The phaseline

The intervention

The application
Question 65
Question
Two events are_____________ if they have no effect on each other.
Answer

Correlated

Independent

Related

Dependent
Question 66
Question
Population ___________, sample statistics.
Answer

Parameters

Percentiles

Descriptives

Inferentials
Question 67
Question
The purpose of a research report is to provide what kind of information?
Question 68
Question
Probability values are always____.
Question 69
Question
In a population of N=6, five of the individuals all have scores that are exactly 1 point above the mean. From this information you can determine that the score for the sixth individual must be____________.
Answer

Also above the mean by one point.

Below the mean by one point.

Below the mean by five points

We do not have enough information to describe the 6th score.
Question 70
Question
The normal distribution is an example of________________.
Answer

A histogram showing data from a sample.

A polygon showing data from a sample.

A bar graph showing data from a population.

A smooth curve showing data from a population.
Question 71
Question
Dr Martha Jones is interested in studying how indoor lighting can influence mood during the winter. She selects a sample of 110 households. Fifty of the homes were randomly assigned to the brightlight condition where Dr Jones replaced all the lights with 100watt bulbs. In the other 50 houses, all the lights were changed to 60 watt bulbs. After two months Dr Martha Jones measured the level of depression for the people living in the houses.
In this example, the level of depression is the ______ variable.
Answer

Dependent

Extraneous

Correlational

Independent
Question 72
Question
Dr Martha Jones is interested in studying how indoor lighting can influence mood during the winter. She selects a sample of 110 households. Fifty of the homes were randomly assigned to the brightlight condition where Dr Jones replaced all the lights with 100watt bulbs. In the other 50 houses, all the lights were changed to 60 watt bulbs. After two months Dr Martha Jones measured the level of depression for the people living in the houses.
In this example, the independent variable is _________.
Answer

The brightness of the lights

The level of depression

The houses with 110watt bulbs

The houses with 60watt bulbs
Question 73
Question
Dr Martha Jones is interested in studying how indoor lighting can influence mood during the winter. She selects a sample of 110 households. Fifty of the homes were randomly assigned to the brightlight condition where Dr Jones replaced all the lights with 100watt bulbs. In the other 50 houses, all the lights were changed to 60 watt bulbs. After two months Dr Martha Jones measured the level of depression for the people living in the houses.
The design of the study can best be described as __________
Answer

Correlational

Betweengroups

Withingroups

Control group