The Collapse of Communism

jacksearle
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

A-Levels Cold War (End of Cold War) Mind Map on The Collapse of Communism, created by jacksearle on 05/26/2014.

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jacksearle
Created by jacksearle over 5 years ago
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The Collapse of Communism
1 Gorbachev's final reforms
1.1 During final years of 80s - G extended perestroika
1.1.1 Introduced greater decentralisation in the economy and elements of choice in Soviet elections
1.1.1.1 Most significant change - official abandonment of Brezhnev Doctrine - during 88-89
1.1.1.1.1 Led to collapse of communism across Eastern Europe
2 Fall of the Berlin Wall
2.1 Poland + Hungary were first countries to test the end of the Brezhnev Doctrine
2.1.1 In Hungary - govt opened its borders with the West - allowing East German citizens to travel via Hungary to West Germany
2.1.1.1 In September alone - 10,000 East Germans made the trip to the West
2.1.1.1.1 Consequently - East G govt agreed to open Checkpoint Charlie
2.1.1.1.1.1 Berliners from both side flocked to wall and began to tear it down
2.1.1.1.1.1.1 Fall of Berlin wall became symbolic end of the Cold War - the end of a divided Europe - a clear victory for people power
3 The Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe 1989 - 1991
3.1 East Germany
3.1.1 Fall of Berlin wall in 1989 - brought East G's comm govt to an end
3.1.1.1 Elections held in March 1990 - Germany reunited in October 1990
3.2 Czechoslovakia
3.2.1 November 1989 - Velvet Revolution - handed power peacefully to a democratically elected govt
3.3 Hungary
3.3.1 Jan 1989 - Comm party announced multi-party elections with Gorbchev's approval
3.3.1.1 First democratic govt was elected in April 1990
3.4 Yugoslavia
3.4.1 During 1990 - nationalist groups in 6 major regions won democratic elections - leading to break up of Yugoslavia
3.5 Romania
3.5.1 Romanian dictator - Ceausescu - overthrown on Christmas day 1989
3.6 Bulgaria
3.6.1 Free elections held in June 1990
3.7 Albania
3.7.1 Free elections held March 1991
3.8 Poland
3.8.1 Following wave of strikes in 1988 - comm govt forced to negotiate with Solidarity
3.8.1.1 By Sept 1989 - Poland had non comm Prime Minister
3.8.1.1.1 Significantly - after end of the Brezhnev Doctrine - G did nothing to challenge fall of communism in Poland
3.8.1.1.1.1 This prompted change across Europe
4 Gorbachev's Role in the collapse of communism
4.1 Initially - G played permissive role by abandoning the B doctrine and announcing that each comm country should 'find its own path to socialism'
4.1.1 By saying this, he implied that East European countries should work towards communism, but be free of Russian influence
4.2 However - once freed of Russian influence - communism quickly collapsed
4.2.1 During 1989 - G became more radical - actively encouraging comm govts to negotiate with opposition groups
4.2.1.1 Even advised East German govt to open its border with West
5 US role in the collapse of Communism
5.1 During 89 - new President George Bush welcomed the changes in East Europe
5.1.1 Was praised for his tact and for not gloating as the USSR began to collapse
6 The fall of the USSR
6.1 Neither Bush nor Gorbachev actively tried to break up the USSR
6.1.1 Nonetheless - nationalist movements in the Soviet republics followed the example of countries from the Eastern Bloc - moved towards independence
6.2 To prevent the break up of the USSR - comm hard-liners staged a coup in August 1991 - temporarily removing G from power
6.2.1 Coup failed - and so did G's attempt to hold the USSR together
6.2.1.1 Gorbachev resigned on 25 December 1991 - USSR ceased to exist a day later

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